VERSION 1.2 , November 2003 copyright (C) Milko Bogaard

Reprinted with kind permission from the author:  Milko Bogaard.




The philosophy of the MARTINIST-ORDER is in fact based upon the work of three different men, Martinez De Pasqually, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, and Jean Baptiste Willermoz. Therefore I'll start with a (brief) profile on these 18th century 'Illuminaries' ;

MARTINEZ DE PASQUALLY (1727 - 1774/09/20), born as (full name) Jacques de Livron Joachim de la Tour de la Casa Martinez de Pasqually . He had founded the ' Ordre des Chevaliers Maçons Elus Cohens de l'Univers' (Order of Knight Masons, Elect Priests of the Universe ) a.k.a. the' ELUS COHEN '. De Pasqually's doctrine is expounded in his only work, "the Reintegration of Beings". The book is a 'pseudo-commentary' on the 'Pentateuch' . De Pasqually's order was divided into three classes, with a total of "9, 10, or 11 Degrees" (dependant on which set of documents one studies), followed by a 'secret grade'. The 'Secret Grade' contained the 'Réau- Croix' -degree (not to be confused with 'Rose-Croix'), in which the initiate practised the art of Theurgy (magical invocation). After De Pasqually's death in 1774 the 'Elus Cohen'-temples soon became dormant. Sebastian de las Casas, the last Grand Master of the Elus Cohen, delivered the archives of the order to the 'Philalèthes' (see "1870 RITE ANCIEN ET PRIMITIF DE MEMPHIS-MISRAÏM" ). De Pasqually's teachings and doctrine continued within the bosom of a small number of Kabbalistic 'Areopagoi' , composed of 9 Elus Cohens ('Elect Priests'). One of the last known direct representatives of the original Elus Cohen was a msr. Destigny, who died in 1868. The successors of the E.'.C.'. at the end of the 19th century were Bergeron, Bréban-Salomon, Carl Michelsen ( Denmark) and Edouard Blitz (USA). Blitz was also an initiate of the 'Chévaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' and the 'Memphis-Misraim Rite'. He was the direct successor of Antoine Pont. The immediate successors in France were Fugairon and Charles Détré (source-Fr.Roggemans). According to Dr.Edouard Blitz in his manual "Ritual and Monitor of the O.'.M.'., the following rites were "entirely or partially derived from the Elus Cohen" :

- ILLUMINATI OF AVIGNON (Hermetic) , Dom Pernety 1766 - ILLUM. THEOSOPHISTS (Mystic), Chantanier 1767 - - PHILALETHES (Occult) Savalette de Langes* 1773 - PRIMITIVE RITE OF NARBONNE (Rosicrucian), 1780

* Savalette de Langes was also co-founder of La Société Philantropique (1780), together with (amongst others) Louis Claude de Saint-Martin.

LOUIS CLAUDE DE SAINT-MARTIN ( 01/18/1743 - 1803/10/13). Saint-Martin was initiated into Pasqually's ELUS COHEN in october 1768 and towards the end of 1770 he becomes Martinez De Pasqually's personal secretary. After De Pasqually's death Saint-Martin tries to convert the Elus Cohen to his personal blend of Christian mysticism (through the years, Saint-Martin gradually felt uneasy about the theurgical operations of the rite). He failt to convert the rite, and decides to leave the order. Meanwhile he publishes several works (his first book had been published in 1775, Des Erreurs et de la Vérité (' Of Errors and Truth' , a book that was recommended by "the Initiated Knights and Brothers of Asia" and used by the "Philalethes") "and assumes the role of mentor and teacher" (source: Sar Ignatius). It is not certain that Saint-Martin founded an order of any kind, however, there's some evidence, if slight, found in private correspondences, in which one finds references to the existence of a group called the "Société des Initiées" (Society of Initiates, founded in 1785 by Willermoz). The 'group' is also referred to as the "Société des Intimes" (Society of Friends). According to leading French Martinist researchers and authorities, such as the late Robert Ambelain and Robert Amadou, the "Société des Intimes" referred to the Elus Cohen of which Saint-Martin himself was a member. In a small booklet published by Gence, "Notice biographique sur L. C. de Saint-Martin" it is stated that it has never been the intention of L.C. de Saint-Martin to establish a rite, order, cult or whatsoever. Cf. R. Amadou in his portrait of L. C. de Saint-Martin, presents the following quote of Saint-Martin ; " Ma secte, c'est la Providence ; mes prosélytes, c'est moi ; mon culte,c'est la justice....", (freely transl.) "My sect - it's called Providence, My < prosélyte>, it's me ; My Cult, it's Justice…".

Anyway, in both cases the group/society is represented by the initials "S.I." ("Supérieur Inconnu"). The followers of Saint-Martin (in various european countries, including Russia) met in small circles, which were based on 'personal initiation' (the initiator employs the biblical "laying on of hands" upon the initiate). According to Sar Ignatius (R+C Martinist Order ) the ceremony comes directly from an order called THE ORDER OF UNKNOWN PHILOSOPHERS 1. Saint-Martin had used the ancient order, thus Sar I., as a "blueprint" to create his 'circles', sometimes referred to as the SOCIETY OF SAINT- MARTIN. The ceremony of the 'personal initiation' also included a ritual which was derived from the Elus Cohen. Saint-Martin's initiation conferred the quality of "Unknown Superior", S.'.I.'. Louis Claude de Saint-Martin died in 1803, " leaving many disciples in several European countries. After his death, his disciples carried on with the Transmission of the Initiation and with the diffusion of the doctrine of the "Unknown Philosopher", the pseudonym under which Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin published his books. They are particularly active in France, in Germany, in Denmark, and in Russia. In 1821, Initiations from person-to-person are known to have taken place. From that year to the 1880's, groups of Initiators carry the Transmission everywhere and particularly in Italy and Germany". (source: R+CMO, Sar Ignatius)

The following information on the possible existence of a rite which was founded by Saint-Martin is derived from Jules Boucher's "Du Martinisme et des Ordres Martinistes", published in 1950.

"One cannot prove the claim that Saint-Martin founded a group which had a 'form' and a 'structure', simply because the documented proof of such a claim does not exist". But if he founded such a group, it must have been a 'true' Secret Society, which kept no files and with members which were bound to an oath of secrecy" (freely transl. )

Boucher continues with a reference to the works of Van Rijnberk. Van Rijnberk, a Martinist and historian, refers to three different texts which speak in favour of the assumption that there existed a group which was founded by Saint-Martin :

"A passage from the "Souvenirs du Comte de Gleichen" who reports that Saint-Martin had constituted a small School in Paris"

"An article of Varnhagen Von Ense, dated 1821, were it is stated that 'Saint-Martin had decided to found a Society which aims were of a purely spiritual nature' "

"A letter, author unknown, addressed to Prof. Köster, dated December 20, 1794. The letter speaks about Saint-Martin and the members of his 'cercle intime', intimate circle. There is talk of a 'Société de Saint-Martin', a Society which had a branch in Strassbourg"

extract from "Du Martinisme et des Ordres Martinistes", Chapter "Ordres et Rites Martinistes", Jules Boucher, C) 1950

Antoine Faivre, professor at the Toulouse State University and later at the famous ‘Sorbonne’, stated in his ‘Notes on Martinism’ that Saint Martin’s movement was first started in Lyon as an Occult Masonic Society, ‘le Rite Rectifié de Saint-Martin’.

JEAN-BAPTISTE WILLERMOZ (1730/10/07 - 1824/05/20) was a pupil of Martinez De Pasqually. Willermoz had become a mason in 1750. In 1753 he founded a lodge called 'La Parfaite Amitié' , of which he became Master. In 1767 Willermoz meets Bacon De Chevalerie, Deputy-Grandmaster of the 'Elus-Cohen'. Through this meeting Willermoz became aware of the existence of a German Masonic order called 'Stricte Observance Templière'. Willermoz contacted the Stricte Observance in 1772. In 1774 a lodge is founded in Lyon called "Loge Ecossaise Rectifiée 'La Bienfaissance''. In 1777 Willermoz implemented the teachings of the 'Elus Cohen' within the rite of the 'Stricte Observance'. On a convention in 1778 it was decided that the rite in the provence of Auvergne would go by the name of 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' ; C.B.C.S.* The widow of Joseph Pont assured the succession of Willermoz as she passed on the complete archives of the C.'.B.'.C.'.S.'. to Cavarnier in 1893. The rites of the C.B.C.S. were transmitted to the 'Grand Priory of Helvetia' (Switzerland) . After 1945 the Rite returned to France and was reactivated. In the Martinist rituals we can find traces of the Templar tradition of the rite. Often, the influence of Willermoz on Martinism is described as ' Willermozism'.

*the C.B.C.S. was included in the Rite Ecossais Rectifié (R.E.R.)

Some sources state that Saint-Martin quickly became a teaching force within the ranks of the THE ORDER OF UNKNOWN PHILOSOPHERS. "Claiming connection with an ancient Order, dating back to 1643 of a 'Rosicrucian character' and having Heinrich Khunrath, Alexander Sethon, Sendivogius, and Boehme among its ranks, the Society of Unknown Philosophers also linked itself to "Les Freres

d’ Orient" created in Constantinople in 1090. The teachings of this society were conveyed from teacher to disciple and their principle unifying form was the distinction of receiving "The Initiation" which gave them the right to be known as "Unknown Superiors" or "Superieurs Inconnus" or S.I. as it is written. Saint-Martin's writings, under the pseudonym "The Unknown Philosopher," made him quite in demand among European aristocracy"


Arthur Edward Waite - on Saint-Martin and a possible affiliated organization at Saint-Martin's time in his book "a new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" - presents the following information: Waite explains there's been a Saint-Martin (circa 316-397 A.D.), who was Bishop of Tours in 371, on which a masonic rite was based about 1770, the rite carried the name of "Ecossais Rectifie de Saint-Martin". The rite arose at the time at the "Lodge -or- Chapter of St.Theodore of Metz". But, as Waite explains, the rite was based on the christian legend of Saint-Martin, who was Bishop of Tours in the 4th century A.D., and not on Louis Claude de S.M. Dr.Edouard Blitz, General Delegate of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order in the U.S.A. and successor of Antoine Pont's E.'.C.'., also refers to the "Rectified Rite of Saint Martin" in the 'official' Martinist manual he wrote. The manual was called 'Ritual and Monitor of the M:::O:::', and was published on April 2, 1896. According to Blitz, the rite was established by Saint-Martin himself in 1767. "The system of De Pasqually's Elus Cohen underwent a transformation by Saint-Martin, and became the rectified Rite in 10 Degrees, classified in 2 Temples", thus Blitz. In 1782 Martin's Rite was introduced in Germany, according to Blitz. The 10 degrees were transformed into 7 Degrees and the rite was known in Germany as "Reformed Ecossism".

Papus, Chaboseau and the 'Ordre Martiniste'

As stated before, it has probably never been the intention of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin to found an actual order, but the continuation of the S.I. Initiation transmitted from person to person would finally lead to the foundation of one of the most prolific esoteric organizations of the western world, the ORDE MARTINISTE or in English, THE MARTINIST ORDER. It was P. Gaëtan Leymarie ( 1817 - 1901 ), publisher of the periodical 'La Revue Spirite', who arranged a meeting in Paris between Gérard Anaclet Encausse (07/13/1865 - 10/25/1916 ) aka Papus, and Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau (06/17/1868 - 01/21/1946). Leymarie was a disciple of Allen Kardec (Leon Revail) . Kardec had published in 1857 "Le Livre des Esprits", after which Kardec became a household name in the world of Spiritism ( Kardec is important mostly for his codification of the doctrine of spiritual progress through reincarnation, a doctrine which influenced Blavatsky in her Theosophical writings). Both students of medical science, Papus and Chaboseau discovered that they both had received the S.I.-Martinist Initiation. In 1888 Papus and Chaboseau exchanged Initiations to consolidate their lines of succession. Gerard Encausse (Papus) had received his 'Initiation' from Henri Dellage, a few weeks before Delaage's death in 1882. Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau was initiated in 1886, at the age of twenty, by his aunt Amelie de Boise-Montmart. According to Chaboseau the 'Initiation' consisted of an "oral transmission of a particular teaching and a certain comprehension of the laws of the Universe and of Spiritual life, which, in no case could be regarded as an Initiation in a ritualistic form" The quote was found in Chaboseau's 'archive' by his son Jean Chaboseau. (source : R.A. in "L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie", ed. 2000)


Pierre Augustin Chaboseau (1868-1946) : Initiated in 1886

Amélie de Boise-Mortmart*

Adolphe Desbarolles

Henri de la Touche

J.A. Hennequin

Abbé de Lanoüe ( +, 1820)

Louis Claude de Saint-Martin ( +, 1803)

Saint Martin was initiated by Baudry de Balzac in the ELUS COHEN in 1768.

Gérard Anaclet Vincent Encausse (1865-1916) : Initiated in 1882

Henri Delaage ( +, 1882)

- unknown -

Msr. Jean Antoine Chaptal ( +, 1832)

Louis Claude de Saint-Martin ( +, 1803)

A survey of the filiation of the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" ;

Chaptal died in 1832, Delaage was born in 1825, it seems unlikely that Chaptal had initiated Delaage at the age of seven!

(courtesy of "Ordre Martiniste")


"Martinism" is generally considered to be a collective noun representing the followers of the 18th century French mystic Louis Claude de Saint-Martin. It is in particular based on the writings of this French mystic. Martinism has also a strong bond with the Elus Cohen of Martinez De Pasqually, as a matter of fact the followers of Martinez de Pasqually (1727-1774) are also known as 'Martinists'. Disciples of De Pasqually follow the technique of theurgic operations, those of Saint-Martin follow the method of inner guidance and illumination, which is known as the "Inner way" or "Way of the Heart".

Both share the belief of the Divine Glory of Man's Origin - and both have the same aim: to regain that glorious Divinity. In general Martinism is a system of philosophic tought, mainly based on the doctrines of Martinez De Pasqually's.'La Réintegration des êtres / Treatise on the Reintegration of Beings into their original virtues, powers and qualities'. On the purpose and aim of the Martinist Order Papus wrote ;

"the Order, as a whole, is especially a school of moral knighthood, endeavouring to develop the spirituality of its members by the study of the invisible world and its laws, by the exercise of devotion and the intellectual assistance and by the creation in each spirit of an all the more solid faith as it is based on observation and science"

To avoid any misunderstanding 'we' usually refer to the followers of De Pasqually as "Martinezists". "Martinism" is in essence a collection of five various rites, orders and groups:

"L'Ordre des Chevaliers Maçon Elus Cohens de l'Univers", founded in 1758 by Martinez de Pasqually

"L'Ordre des Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte", founded in 1778 by Jean-Baptiste Willermoz, belonging to the 'Higher Derees" of the 'Régime Ecossais Rectifié', or ' Rite Ecossais Rectifié' (R.E.R. - "Scottish Rectified Rite")

"L'Ordre Martiniste des Elus-Cohens", founded in 1768 by Martinez de Pasqually.

The friends and disciples of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, the "Unknown Philosopher".

"L'Ordre Martiniste", founded in 1887* by Papus as 'L'Ordre des Supérieurs Inconnus'.

*other sources claim the year 1888.

Papus and Chaboseau decided to create an organization that would serve as a centre of study of "Martinism' and as a means to propagate the Martinist teachings. At the same time the Order propagated the study of symbolism, cults and mystical traditions through an academy of Science, Art and Social Studies. The 'O:::M:::' would establish a Hermetic school under the name of L' ECOLE HERMETIQUE (see chapter "1896 Societe Alchimique de France"), which "through Arabic, Sanskrit, Greek and Latin undertook studies of Hermetical prime-sources. Papus and his friends also strived towards research into the Divine Sciences as revelation of the history of humanity" (notes on "Martinism', source unknown*). There was an emphasis on the study of Spiritism, Magnetism, Magic and Astrology (in theory and practice) by means of "Scientific experiments". "The reintegration of humanity should as religious subjects through the minds of De Pasqually and Saint-Martin led onto an original purity. Thus should the ancient Gnostic goal of a closeness between Men and God be accomplished (notes*). 'Martinism' as formulated by Papus and Chaboseau was meant to be a 'gateway' to Higher Degrees and teachings. Papus also wanted to strive towards the 'unification of all occult orders'; He shared this vision with men like John Yarker and Theodor Reuss. These men were in communication with each other at the time, and there was a 'constant' interchange of documents, charters, and information between them. According to Papus, the first personal Initiations (1) into the redefined "Martinist Order" date back to 1884. The first Lodges were founded between 1887 and 1890. Actually, the first Lodge was founded by Papus, Josephin Peladan, and Stanislas De Guaita, and was probably located at the "rue Pigalle" were Josephin Peladan lived.The name ORDRE MARTINISTE turns up for the first 1887. The O.'.M.'. was a fusion of the "Ordre des Elus Cohen" and the "Rectified Rite of Saint-Martin* ". As mentioned before, in 1888 Papus and Chaboseau discovered that they were both initiated into the S::I:: Degree. Together they redefined the ORDRE MARTINISTE with Papus acting as its leader. In 1889 the first official proclamation of the ORDRE MARTINISTE is published in the periodical "L'Initiation". In 1891 the order was placed under a Supreme Council of 12 members with Papus appointed as President for life and as Grand Master. The idea of this Supreme Council was developed two years earlier and the Council was originally called "Conseil Occulte des 12 de la Rose+Croix ". The 12 original members of the "Suprême Conseil de L'Ordre Martiniste" were:

Gerard Encausse (Papus), Augustin.Chaboseau, Stanislas De Guaita, Lucien Chamuel, Francois-Charles Barlet, Paul Sedir (Yvon Leloup), Paul Adam, Maurice Barres, Jules Lejay, Georges Montieres, Jaques Burget, and Josephin Peladan.

The order was officially known as "l'Ordre des Supérieurs Inconnus" ( 2), the Order of the Unknown Superiors, comprising of three degrees. "Papus claimed to have come into the possession of the original papers of de Pasqually and to have been given authority in the Rite of Saint-Martin* by his friend Henri Viscount Delaage, who claimed that his maternal grandfather had been initiated into the order by Saint-Martin himself". (Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas) The Martinist Order would soon establish branches all over Europe and America, and was to become a primary focus for Papus …

see Waite's commentary on "The Rite of Saint-Martin" in the beginning of the chapter on the M:::O:::

On the method of "personal Initiation" ; each member who'd received the S.I. Degree was empowered to form a group, which was pledged solely to conceal the name of the person from who he had received the Order on his own part. The early rituals describe the method as follows: "The diffusion of the Order is like cellular diffusion. One cell never shuts up another, except for a very short period. The mother-cell divides or rather gives birth to cellules, which themselves become 'mothers' in a very short space of time"

The O:::M::: was officially called the "Ordre des Silencieux Inconnus" aka "Ordre des S:::I::: , sometimes referred to as "Brethren of the Six Points" (A.E.Waite in "a new Encyclopeadia of Freemasonry" )

Gérard Anaclet Vincent Encausse ( Papus )

1865 - 1916

Encausse's pseudonym "Papus" was taken from the "Nuctemeron of Appolonius of Tyana" , which was published as a supplement to Eliphas Levi's "Dogme et Rituel de la Haute Magie". "Papus" means "Physician" (of the first hour), after the Egyptian genii of the healing arts. Papus was born in La Coruña, Spain on July 13, 1865, of a Spanish mother and a French father. His family moved to Paris when Papus was four.

" As a young man, Encausse spent a great deal of time at the Bibliothèque Nationale studying the Qabalah, the Tarot, the sciences of magic and alchemy, and the writings of Eliphas Lévi ". Papus also studied material which came from Charles Nodier, writer, occultist and chief librarian of the famous Arsenal Library in 1824. In 1934 the library was incorporated with the National Library. Papus became aquainted with a circle of Gnostics, Rosicrucians, and 'older' Martinists, all students of the late Eliphas Levi. "It was amidst this circle that Gerard Encausse was to make acquaintance with HENRI DELAAGE, his initiator, who, in 1882, consecrated the young Encausse with the name 'PAPUS S:::I:::' !" ("the Balzac of the Occult and the Russian Sphynx").

About his Initiation Papus' commented :

"a few months before his death, Delaage wanted to entrust 'the seed' which had been entrusted to him at one time; a simple gift consisting of 2 letters and some dots, a summary of a doctrine of Initiation and the 'Trinity' which had illuminated all the works of Delaage. But the 'Invisible One' was there, and its Light illuminated the responsibility entrusted to me, to plant this spiritual Seed in soil where it can and will develop" ("freely" transl. from the original in French)

After his study (1894) Papus starts to work as a physician and as head of the laboratory of the "Hopital de la Charite de Paris" . He had received his "Doctor of Medicine degree" on July 7, 1894, upon submital of a dissertation on Philosophical Anatomy.

At the same time he started a career as a prolific author. Papus published 160 titles during his life (books, articles etc.). In 1888 he received international recognition with his second publication "Traité Elementaire de Science Occulte" (1). Around 1897-1898 Papus also became 'active' within the peace movement. He established the "Union Idealiste Universelle", a kind of movement which was inspired on Eliphas Lévi's "Catechism de paix" ( ' Catechism of Peace' ). Although Jollivet-Castelot ( Jollivet would later become a member of the Communist party of France, until he was expelled) talked about a membership of 30,000 intellectuals, many of these are unknown. The Union strongly pleaded the Armenian cause at the time. During his life, Papus was also involved in the publication of several journals, reviews etc. Besides the earlier mentioned "la revue Théosophique" and the 'official' Martinist review 'L'Initiation', there were the Le Voile D'Isis (1890, with Détre as editor-1912-), 'Le Réveil Gnostique', 'Revue d'Hypnologie' , 'La Gnose', "le Lotus" (TS) ,"Light of Paris" (Spiritualism), "la Lumière d'Orient" (on the Islam and Turkey, just 2 editions), ' l'Hiram' ('Masonic'), and 'Mysteria' ( 1913, 'Mysteria' was the new name for "l'Initiation" ). Several of the Martinist Order's jurisdictions outside of France published their own Journals ;

1905, publication of the Martinist bulletin "L'Isis" appears in Hungary.

1906, publication of the English version of "L'Initiation" for England appears under the name of "INRI ".

1909, A Martinist newspaper appears in the United States, called "Treshold"

1910, the official review "Isida " is published in Russia.

"Le Voile D'Isis", Nov. 1890

first publication of "Le Voile d'Isis", the official organ of the "Indépendant d'études Esoterique de Paris", Wednesday, November 12, 1890.

Directeur; Papus- 29, rue de Trévise . Rédacteur en Chef, Augustin Chaboseau. Sécretaire de la Rédaction, L.Mauchel - 29, rue de Trévis

His meeting with M Philippe from Lyon upsets his vision of the world. From this time on Papus becomes the propagator of Christian Mysticism and "the Way of the Heart", which Saint-Martin called the "Inner Way" . The core of this philosophy, as described by Papus, is published in Papus' The Cardiac or Mystic Path '. Papus deals in this publication with the importance of simplicity and the purification of body, soul and mind in one's spiritual quest. Another text of Papus which reflects the philosophy of the 'Inner Way' is appropriately called 'the Way of the Heart' ;

"I know a simple man who has never read a book and who, nevertheless, can solve the trickiest problems of science better than famous scientists. There are humble people without academic qualifications and medical experience to whom heaven is so accessible that the sick are healed at their request and the wicked feel their hearts melting in loving kindness at their contact".

A.Philippe Nizier (1842-1905), who used magnetism as a healing-technique, attracted many followers at the time (see Chapter "1850-1900 France"). Among them were occultists like Papus, Marc Haven (Dr.Lalande), Sedir, Phaneg etc. The influence of Maitre Philippe upon the Martinist Order of Papus should not be underestimated! Within some modern-day Martinist Lodges Maitre Philippe is venerated as one of the 'Unknown Superiors'. There are Martinists who claim that 'Papus' was chosen to create the O:::M::: , at the time when he became one of the companions of Philippe. Papus wrote a text called "the Incarnation of the Elect" which is often referred to as 'prove'. Here's the passage which refers to the 'group of Compagnions' ;

" And I was not allowed to write the mystery of this incarnation when eleven elect passed by the sun to accompany him who came deliberately back on Earth, and the eleven arrived at the sun five years after half the century "

Papus wrote many articles on the ' healing-techniques' of Maitre Philippe. The following phrase is an excerpt from an article by Papus and published in "L'Initiation", of certain experiments on healing-methods of M.Philippe.

At the time of one of my last voyages, the Master instructed me the following practise; I had to "touch" the face of a young girl who had a sister who was ill. The sick child was 2 kilometers away from her sister and me. By means of "touch" and "concentration" the child was cured. This treatment is generally known by many hypnotizers ....

Papus was known to the poor of the district around the la rue de Savoie in Paris as the 'bon docteur', as Papus treated his patients, that is to say the poor and needy, for free.

When World War I broke out, Papus volunteered to help the casualties. He enters the war as doctor and Head of an ambulance. Due to his work in the notorious trenches at the front, he falls seriously ill and Papus dies on October 25, 1916 at the "Hopital de la Charite de Paris", the same hospital where he had started his career as a physician. Papus was 51 when he died. Papus' method of treatment often started with an observation of the patient's aura to support his diagnosis. Papus' method of treatment evidently appealed to the Vital Life-Force of the patient. Papus' classified diseases in three 'classes';

Diseases of the Body (fevers, traumas)

"Astral" Diseases (tuberculosis, cancer) , can be treated by Homoeopathy and Magnetism

Diseases of the 'Spirit' (epilepsy, hysteria, madness), can be treated with the help of 'Magic'. According to Papus this kind of disease has its root in "Evil", and is therefore not subject to one's Kharma. Papus' first actual teacher in the intellectual aspects of occultism was the Marquis Joseph Alexandre Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (1842-1909). As stated in the "History of the FUDOSI-Addendum series", Saint-Yves had inherited the papers of Antoine Fabre d'Olivet (1768 *-1825), one of the great teachers of French occultism. Papus was also a follower of Saint-Yves' concept of Synarchy (see "F.U.D.O.S.I.- Addendum 7" and Chapter "1850-1900 France"). From these days on, Papus would always refer to d'Alveydre as his "Intellectual teacher". Papus considered "Le Maitre Philippe' (Philippe Nizier) as his "Spiritual Master" and Peter Davidson, whom Papus called "one of the wisest of the Western Adepts", as his 'Practical Master'. Papus met Monsieur Phillippe (sometime about 1886-1887) through his fiancee Mathilde. As stated in Part 5 of this 'series' :

At first, it seems that Papus suspected that Nizier exercized "some illicit fascination" over her. When Papus tried to defend her by occult means , the ritual actually backfired when he tried to attack Nizier. "Papus says it was from this instant he recognized Phillippe as his spiritual master (maitre spirituelle)".

Papus was also a great admirer of the works of Louis Lucas, an alchemist and follower of Levi. Papus called himself a pupil of Lucas. His brochure "L'Occultism Contemporain", published in 1887 was dedicated to Lucas. In respect of Papus' Martinist affiliations I think it would be interesting to know more about his relationship with the Italian Martinist Giuliano Kremmerz (1861-1930). Kremmerz' school was supposedly based on Martinism. His branch traces back to the 'school' of Eliphas Levi, and is called "MARTINISMO NAPOLITANO'. Kremmerz (2) was an 'old' Martinist, and an acquaintance of Papus at the time. Many Martinists suppose that Kremmerz exchanged initiations with Papus. According to Andres Kibisa, an Italian Martinist, it would be strange if they did not exchange their lineages. "They were friends, with Papus being in need to strengthen his main line of affiliation, and with Kremmerz in possesion of a more trustable filiation, it seems to me very odd if they did not exchange their lines of succession !", thus Kibisa (Centro Studi Andrés Kimbisa ). Kibisa also refers to another ancient Martinist filiation, the only one linked directly ( Kibisa's words) to De Pasqually. He refers to Lucien Francois Jean-Maine (Tau Ogdoade-Orfeo I, - the whole history on Jean-Maine and his organizations is quite controversial, for those who are interested, see Peter R.Koenig's "O.T.O.A.-a Gnostic Inflation" at : ).

Maine's relatives were members of the original Cohen-temple in Leogane, Haiti. After De Pasqually's death several members of the Elus Cohen, together with some Masons and Templars, founded the "Les Templiers Noires". Jeane-Maine spent some time in Paris where he met Papus. It is said that he exchanged his M.M. filiations (amongst others) with Papus, for which Jean-Maine received in return such charters as the O.T.O. etc. "Is it possible that Papus, being aware of his heritage, asked to get Jean-maine's line of succession ?". In 1887 he was also introduced by a F.K. Gaborian into the company of Lady Marie Caithness, Duchess of Pomar, and her circle. In 1882 the Duchess was approached by Mdm Blavatsky, Colonel Olcott, and Annie Besant, to form the French branch of the "THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY".

* some sources state that D'Olivet was born in 1762.I d

(1) Some of Papus' titles and publications ;

Traité Elementaire de Science Occulte. Carré, 1888

Le Tarot des Bohémiens. Carré, 1889

Traité Méthodique de Science Occulte. Carré, 1891

La Science des Mages. Chamuel,1892

Qu´est-ce que l´Occultisme? Chamuel, 1892

Traité Elémentaire de Magie Pratique, Chamuel, 1893

Les Arts Divinatoires. Chamuel, 1895

L´Almanach du Magiste, ed. 1895 and ed.1899.

La Magie et l´Hypnose. Chamuel,1897

L´Occultisme contemporain. Carré, 1901

Comment on lit dans les mains. Ollendorff, 1902 (2º ed.)

La Cabbale, Chacornac, 1903 (3º ed.)

Almanach de la Chance pour 1905

Le Tarot Divinatoire. Libr. Hermetique, 1909

Révisé Le Voile d´Isis (articles from 1891, 1909).

Ce que doit savoir un maitre Maçon. Ficher, 1910

La Réincarnation. Dorbon, 1912

Premiers Eléments de Lecture de la Langue Hébraique.Dorbon 1913

Révisé L´Initiation (articles from 1891, publ. in 1914)

Ce que deviennent nos morts, La Sirene, 1918

ABC Illustré D´Occultisme, Dorbon, 1922 (6º ed.)

Traité Méthodique de Magie Pratique, Chacornac, 1924

La Science des Nombres. Chacornac, 1934

Traité Elémentaire d´Occultisme et d´Astrologie, Dangles, 1936

Papus in the back-room of the "Librarie du Merveilleux", used for

Martinist activities around 1890 …


(2) Giuliano Kremmerz (1861-1930)

Kremmerz is the founder of the "ORDER OF MYRIAM" and the "ORDINE OSIRIDEO EGIZIO" (EGYPTIAN OSIRIAN ORDER). The "Order of Myriam"

( Fratellanza Terapeutico-Magica di Myriam ) was mainly a therapeutic school, the OOE was an internal Order dedicated to spiritual and operative alchemy. Although Kremmerz was a "notorious" occultist, Kremmerz has a lot of interesting material to offer. Apparently, Kremmerz' first teacher was a Pasquale de Servis, a.k.a. IZAR, and his teachings were based upon the A.A.-SCALA DI NAPOLI system.


Papus and the Orders & Societies


At the age of 23, Papus became a member of the "THEOSOPHICAL SOCIETY". "On October 25, 1887, Colonel Olcott personally announced the election of Papus to the newly formed General Council of the Theosophical Society at Adyar, India and as a propagator of Kiato Buddhism for the 'T.S.' . Papus became a member of Lodge-Isis, founded in July 1887 by Dramard and Gaboriau. In 1888, Papus would already leave the T.S. He had justed helped co-founding Lodge-Hermes in October, 1888. Papus "officialy" resigned on May 19, 1890. According to many sources, his reason for leaving the T.S. being the dislike of Papus of the Society's emphasis on Eastern Occultism. Some sources even state that Blavatsky and Papus disrespected each other! ( Christopher McIntosh). According to Papus' son Dr.Philippe Encausse, his father had always held Blavatsky in high esteem; see "the Balzac of the occult ….." at:

But it is true that Papus considered Blavatsky's Mahatma's not the sole depository of "Sacred Sience". Papus believed in a tradition conserved in the ancient temples of ancient Egypt, thus Philippe Encausse…


Things startened to happen for Papus, in 1887 he was also elected President of the "GROUPE INDEPENDANTE DES d'ETUDES ESOTERIQUES".

This association attracted many popular mystics living in France at the time. Its aim was to create 'Initiates'; men and women who'd chosen to undertake the study of esoteric wisdom and occult science. "The role of- the -Initiatic society," as Papus conceived it, was to"encourage the student to create a personal doctrine of his own".

Many of the French occultists who were collectively known as "LES COMPAGNONS DE LA HEIROPHONIE" were part of the G.I.D.E.E. Included were men like Victor Michelet, Josephin Peladan, Paul Sedir, Lucien Chamuel, Stanislas De Guaita, Albert Poisson, Ch.F.Bartlet (Alfred Foucheaux), Gary de Lacroze, Augustin Chaboseau, Phaneg ( Descormiers, + 1946), Silva, Marc Haven, Dr.Rozier, Jollivet-Castelot, etc. Many of them were Theosophists, as well as initiated Martinists of one or other chain. Papus was editor-chief at the time of a journal called "The Veil of Isis". The "Veil of Isis" was published under the banner of the G.I.D.E.E. (published once a month, between 1890 and 1898). In 1905 the review reappeared. The review continued its publications until 1936 (Chief-editor Charnorac; Charnorac became chief-editor in 1912, the review disappeared during 1914-1918, and reappeared again in 1920. In 1936 the "Veil of Isis" changed its name to "études traditionnelles".

Papus would describe the G.I.D.E.E. as the "Outer court for a greater and higher Initiatic Order, comprising their recruits from this outer and predominantly theosophically oriented association" ("The Balzac of the Occult …")

This statement of Papus shows the obvious reason why his days in the T.S. would be short-lived. He left to give way to full time concentration on the order that would unite all Martinists. In an article of Papus, published in the "Veil of Isis" of February, 1891, he stated that the G.I.D.E.E. was already "active" for a year, with more then 350 members, a headquarter, library and conference-room included. Other contemporary members were men such as Polti, Colonel Rochas, Lemerle, Abel Haatan, Serge Basset, etc. The G.I.D.E.E. had various branches in France and Belgium: For instance, in Lyon, at 17 Rue de Sully, there was established the "Fraternité Lyonnaise et Catalane" (contact: Ely Steel). At Brussels, Belgium, lodge KVMRIS represented i.a. the G.I.D.E.E. in Belgium.

There are sources which state that the G.I.D.E.E. was established by Papus with the help of Saint-Yves d'Alveydre (see Chapter "1888 -OKR+C"). Saint-Yves, according to some sources, also claimed to be the Grand Master of the original Martinist Order (??). Whatever the truth is, the collaboration of a man like Saint-Yves d'Alveydre would certainly have attracted many "mystics" to the ranks of a new organization like the "Groupe Independent des Etudes Esoterique". But it is a fact that Saint-Yves has never held any membership of any occult organization, despite the claims. He was never a member of the Martinist Order. It is claimed that Saint-Yves d'Alveydre even rejected a honorary membership into the Martinist Order which Papus had sended to him.

According to various sources (e.g.Koenig) the G.I.D.E.E. also carried a succession of Fabre-Palaprat's "Order of the Temple". Bernard-Raymond Fabre-Palaprat, a physician from Paris, had "restored" the original Templar Order in 1804. The restoration was supported by Napoleon Bonaparte. The G.I.D.E.E. ("Independent Group of Esoteric Studies") was founded to develop research-centres of occult siences. One of such branches or centres was for instance the G.'.M.'.E.'.I.'. , Groupe Maconnique d'Etudes Initiatiques , which was headed by Oswald Wirth. According to some, the G.I.D.E.E. was later renamed "Ecole Hermetique", the Hermetic School, others state that the "Ecole Hermetique" was established next (and afterwards) to the G.I.D.E.E. The "Ecole Hermetique" later allegedly developed into the "Université libre des hautes Etudes" (Faculté des Sciences Hermétiques);. The university was ment for the "aces" of the Martinist Order. Some of the 'professors" and lecturers who were appointed at the "faculty of Hermetic Sciences" ; Paul Sédir, Serge Basset, Siséra Rosabis, Dr.Rozier , Jollivet Castelot. The Hermetic School was led by a 'council of improvement' which consisted of ;

Charles Barlet


Marc Haven

Victor Emile Michelet

Serge Basset

Paul Sédir

The graduated Hermetic students would continue their studies in several Martinist Lodges in Paris ;

1) LE SPHINX. The Grand Lodge for general studies.

2) HERMANUBIS, led by Paul Sédir, studies of the Mystic and Eastern tradition.

3) VELLÉDA, led by V-E Michelet, studies of French Masonry and its Symbolism

4) SPHYNGE, reserved mainly for Artistic adaptations.

The following text is a translation of the article "L'Ordre Martiniste a la belle époque" taken from the French website of the Traitional Martinist Order. The article confirms the assumptionS made earlier that the "Ecole Hermetique" and the "Faculté des Sciences Hermétiques" were indeed continuations of the G.I.D.E.E..

"Papus wanted to renew the occidental esoterism : "As there are existing faculties where the materialistic sciences can be studied, why would it not be possible to create such a faculty where the esoteric sciences can be studied? " Thus he creates 'l’École Supérieure Libre des Sciences Hermétiques', a group which gives courses and organizes lectures to promote the values of occidental esoterism to the seeker. This 'exterior' circle of the Martinist Order will be first known under the name 'le Groupe Indépendant d'Etudes Esotériques' (G.I.D.E.E.), then as 'l'Ecole Hermétique' and 'la Faculté des Sciences Hermétiques'. Many courses are presented (12 per month) with subjects ranging from the kabbala, alchemy and the tarot, to the history of hermetic philosophy . The teachers are Papus, Sédir, Victor-Emile Michelet, Barlet, Augustijnse Chaboseau, Sisera …. A special section is devoted to the oriental sciences under the direction of Augustin Chaboseau (1). Another section, presided by François Jollivet-Castelot, is devoted to alchemy - this is la Société Alchimique de France"

(source: Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel - Grande Heptade de la Juridiction Française)

It is common knowledge that Augustin Chaboseau was very interested in Buddhism, an interest he shared with i.a. Harvey Spencer Lewis of A.M.O.R.C / O.M.T. and which he maintained all his life.

In 1888 Papus and his friend Lucien Chamuel founded the "Librarie du Merveilleux" and its monthly journal "L'Initiation". Many Occultists contributed articles to the review, some of the lesser known occultists were men such as Villier de l'Isle-Adam, Catulle Mendés, Julien Lejay, Emile Goudeau, Jules Lermina,Eugéne Nus

Rodolphe Darzens, George Montiere, Aleph, el F.'.Bertrand, Bouvery, rené Caillié

George Delanne, Ely Star, Fabre des Essarts, G.Poirel, A.Robert, Rouxel, H.Sausse, G.Vitoux, Vurgey, and many others… the review was "banned" by the Vatican in Rome in 1891 and was put on the Index. Another review of the G.I.D.E.E. was called "l'Union Occulte de France", and was published in Lyon.

The journal remained in publication until 1914, when World War I broke out. Papus' son, Dr.Philippe Encausse, reconstituted the "ORDRE MARTINISTE DE PAPUS" in 1952, and revived the original journal again.

There exists today even an English version of "L'Initiation" , obtainable on the following address: : GERME (USA) - 4287-A Beltline Road, # 330; Addison, TX 75001 – USA ; their first edition, published in 2000, was for the most part a translation of the first edition of the revived L'Initiation of Phillipe Encausse in Januari, 1953.


Apparently, Papus was a member of the " Fraternité Hermétique de Louxor', the French branch of the "HERMETIC BROTHERHOOD OF LUXOR". The French branch was headed by Francois Charles Barlet, who was also a member of the G.I.D.E.E. Certain sources state that Barlet already knew Max Theon (founder of the "H.B.of L.") in 1871 when, supposedly together with Blavatsky, they'd established the "SOCIETE SPIRITE"(1).

The "Societe Spirité" was an organization which studied the teaching of the spiritist Alan Kardec (2 weeks after its foundation the society would already be disbanded due thru 'difficulties' between Blavatsky and Theon). According to the information given in Koenig's "Ein Leben fuer die Rose" (on Krumm-Heller) Barlet was introduced to the 'H.B.of L.' by Alexander Ayton. Ayton would later join the 'Golden Dawn' . Barlet later joined Theon with his "MOUVEMENT COSMIQUE", an organization which Theon founded around 1900. Barlet was the first editor of the "Cosmic Review", which acted as "mouthpiece" for the 'movement'. Evidently, the H.B.of L. became extinct in France in the final years of the 19th century in preparation for Theon's 'Cosmic Movement'. We know this from a statement made by Barlet in 1908 "... it (H.B. of L.) only ceased in order to pass on the succession to another perfectly vital form".The statement was made in a new magazine Barlet had started, called "L'Etoile D'Orient - Revue de Hautes Etudes Psychiques". The first edition of Jan. 24, 1908 announced the establishment of the "Centre Esoterique Oriental de France". The third edition of March 24 presented an article written by Barlet, "Au Fondateur du Centre Esotérique Oriental de Paris, Dr.Albert de Sarâk". The statement regarding the filiation between the H.B. of L. and the "Mouvement Cosmique" stems from the article.

1. The supposed connection between Blavatsky and Theon in Blavatsky's 'Societe Spirité'' in Cairo, Egypt in 1871 is attributed to 'The Mother' , a follower of Theon's 'Mouvement Cosmique' , based on her reminiscences of events which happened 50 years before. Furthermore, the involvement of Barlet in the 'Societe Spirité' seems also unlikely. Barlet was one of the first members of the Theosophic Society in France. René Guenon stated that Barlet hesitated to join the 'H.B.of L.', because of his membership in the Theosophic Society. Barlet asked his initiator, Rev.W.A.Ayton, if membership in the H.B.of L. was compatible with Barlet's membership in the Theosophic Society. Ayton had joined the H.B.of L. in or about the year 1880. Barlet joined a few years later in 1885...

In letters which were written in 1895 by Peter Davidson (Papus' 'Practical Master', co- founder of the 'H.B.of L.' with Max Theon) it becomes clear that Davidson was a member of several orders, among which the "G.I.D.E.E.".

Davidson also represented the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" during Davidson's 'American period', at the H.B.of L. colony in Georgia, USA. In 1889 two Frenchmen, René Caillié ( 1831 - 1896 ) and Albert Jounet ( 1863 - 1923), founded the "FRATERNITE DE L'ETOILE" ("Fraternity of the Star"). Many of their members were Martinists. The Order had a branch of some sort in the USA, which was led by Peter Davidson, co-founder of the 'H.B.of L.' The Order was 'baptized' "THE MORNING STAR". Apparently, the order published a journal under the same name ("Morning Star" 1), which acted as the 'official journal' of the 'Martinist Order' of Papus for a short period of time….(source: Marcel Roggemans, Belgium).

According to one source, the "FRATERNITE DE L'ETOILE" sprang from circles within the "THEOSOPHIC SOCIETY". This seems rather unlikely, because both Caillé and Jounet, two Christian esotericists, had founded the fraternity "to counter the 'atheistic neo-Buddhism' of the Theosophical Society". Caillé was also a member of the H.B.of L.

Apparently, the "Fraternite de L'Etoile" was dissolved officially at a (Theosophic?) conference in 1927 at the city of Ommen in the Netherlands. There has been an unsuccessful attempt to revive the order in 1982 (??).

The "HERMETIC BROTHERHOOD OF LUXOR" was an occult school which taught their pupils by correspondence. Papus wrote in his work 'Traité méthodique des sciences occultes' (Paris, 1903) :

"The HERMETIC BROTHERHOOD OF LUXOR instructs their members by private correspondence, helping them in their studies and exercizes on a personal basis. The organization has many members in Egypt, India, Scotland, France and America…."

Another interesting aspect of the H.B.of L. is its original intended relationship with the "Ordre Martiniste" as foreseen by Papus. The following text is taken from an article written by René Guenon, which was published in the journal "Le Voile d'Isis", in April 1925. The complete translated text of Guenon can be found in the excellent book "The Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor, Initiatic and Historical Documents of an Order of Practical Occultism", written by J.Godwin, C.Chanel, and J.P.Deveney.

René Guenon, "F-Ch.Barlet et les Sociétiés Initiatiques" , Le Voile d'Isis 30/64 (April 1925), 217-221 ...

"Towards the middle of 1888, Barlet resigned from the Theosophic Society, after the dissension that had arisen within the Isis Branch of Paris ... It was also at about this date that Papus began to organize Martinism, and Barlet was one of the first people he called on to form his Supreme Counsil. It was understood, at first, that Martinism's sole purpose was to prepare its members for entry into an Order that could confer an authentic initiation on those who showed themselves able to receive it; and the Order which they had in view for this was none other then the H.B. of L., of which Barlet had become the official representative for France.This is why Papus wrote, in 1891: "Authentically occult societies still exist, possessing the integral tradition; I call for witness one of the wisest of Western adepts, my Practical Master, Peter Davidson" *. However, this project did not succeed, and they had to content themselves, for Martinism's superior center, with the Kabbalistic Order of the Rose-Cross" (Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix)

'Traité méthodique des sciences occultes' (Paris, 1903)

The journal was under the editorship of Peter Davidson. The 'Morning Star' also represented the interests of the H.B. of L. for a while. From 1905 onwards, the journal acted as a vehicle for Theon's "Mouvement Cosmique" in the English speaking world and as the official review of Davidson's Order, "THE ORDER OF THE CROSS AND THE SERPENT", which Davidson had founded after the 'demise' of the H.B. of L.


In 1887 Saint-Yves d'Alveydre introduced Papus to the Marquis Stanislas De Guaita (1860-1897). In 1888 De Guaita, J.Peladan, Oswald Wirth, Papus and others would found the "ORDRE KABBALISTIQUE DE LA ROSE-CROIX" ("officially" the 'OKR+C' was founded by Peladan and De Guaita). The OKR+C would later be 'incorporated' with the "ORDRE MARTINISTE". After the S.I. Degree the Martinist would study the Kabbalah on a 'deeper level' within the "OKR+C".

In 1888 things began to move with regard to the development of the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" as an organization. Especially the "Congres Spirite et Spiritualiste" given in the lodgerooms of the co-Masonic order "LE DROIT HUMAIN" in Paris proved to be a success for Papus and his Martinist Order. The congress gathered both members of established occult- and Masonic orders, as well as independent occultists from all over Europe, America, and Australia. Apparently, In 1889 there were 27 Martinist Lodges in France, 33 in Germany, 36 in America, and surprisingly 9 in Sweden (McIntosh). Finally, in 1891 the Martinist Order was placed under a Supreme Counsil of 12 members with Papus appointed as President for life and as Grand Master. When Stanislas De Guaita died in 1897, Papus succeeded him as leader of the OKR+C. Papus was the "Deluge General de L'Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose-Croix" until his death in 1916. According to René Guenon it was Barlet who succeeded De Guaita, but Barlet was not interested in the OKR+C. René Guenon speaks about the inactivity of the OKR+C after De Guaita's death in 1897. Guenon states that F.Ch. Barlet succeeded De Guaita as Grand Master of the OKR+C, and "although he had the title, he never exercised its functions effectively. The order, in fact, had no further regular meetings after the death of its founder, and later, when Papus was thinking for a moment of reviving it, Barlet, who by now was not frequenting any occultist groups, declared that he was completely uninterested in it ; he thought, and no doubt rightly, that such efforts, resting on no solid basis, could only lead to further failures". René Guenon, "F-Ch.Barlet et les Sociétiés Initiatiques" , Le Voile d'Isis 30/64 (April 1925), 217-221 ... as translated in "The Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor, Initiatic and Historical Documents of an Order of Practical Occultism"


Some sources state that Papus, Marc Haven and Sédir founded a new organization to replace the O.K.R.C., the mysterious Fraternitas Thésauri Lucis (F.T.L.). Unfortunately, the Order, founded in 1897, enjoyed a short-lived existence. The F.T.L. is i.a. mentioned in the 1939 edition of "Les Religions Nouvelles de Paris - Parmi les sectes et les rites", written by Pierre Geyraud and first published in 1937. Geyraud also states that the F.T.L. was founded around 1898. Geyraud is i.a. quoted in Christopher McIntosh's "Eliphas Levi and the French Occult Revival"(1972). Paul Sédir stated the following in his "Histoire des Rose+Croix" (1910): "we suppose that the neophytes are put in touch with the Order in a way comparable to that described in the rosicrucian poster placarded in Paris in 1623; the initiation is very pure and essentially Christian."

Pierre Geyraud (1937): "This F.T.L. is certainly surrounded by mystery! None the less I have been able to find out that its present head is M.C., a friend of Barlet, who was the Grand Master of the Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix; that it has a branch at Bordeaux-called the Saint-Graal; and that it's founder was …. Sédir himself !

(Geyraud quoted in "Eliphas Levi and the Occult Revival")

The text of Geyraud implies that the F.T.L., Fraternitas Thésauri Lucis ( Geyraud only speaks of the F.T.L.), was active at the time of his investigations for his book …


In 1888, while working as archivist for the library of Orleans in France, Jules Doinel discovered an original charter dated 1022, which had been written by Canon Stephan of Orleans, a schoolmaster and forerunner of the Cathars who taught Gnostic doctrines

( He was burned for heresy that same year). Doinel had a vision in which the "Aeon Jesus" appeared, 'He' charged Doinel with the work of establishing a new church. Doinel was a "Grand Orient Freemason" and a practising Spiritist. "In May of 1890 (although specific dates vary) Jules Doinel attended a séance of sorts in the oratorie of the ' Duchess of Pomar (The Countess of Caithness)…. It appears that the disembodied spirits of ancient Albigensians, joined by a heavenly voice, laid spiritual hands on Doinel, creating him "Valentinus II, Bishop of the Holy Assembly of the Paraclete and of the Gnostic Church". Too cut a long story short, the EGLISE GNOSTIQUE was founded by Jules Doinel in 1890. In 1892 Doinel consecrated Papus asTau Vincent, Bishop of Toulouse. Other Martinists, such as Paul Sedir and Lucien Chamuel were also consecrated by Doinel. These three men 'embodied' the 'nucleus' of the newly build Gnostic Universal Church. "In 1908 a Gnostic schism occurred: the branch at Lyon under Bricaud took yet another new name; 'Église Gnostique Catholique' (EGC). Then it changed again becoming the EGLISE GNOSTIQUE UNIVERSELLE (EGU). Meanwhile the original Paris Église Gnostique of Paris had been taken over by Leon Champrenaud "Théophane" though it later disintegrated under Paul Genty "Basilides" in 1926"

source: "Stranded Bishops: Ecclesia Gnostica Catholica", by Peter-R. Koenig

In 1911 the E.G.A. became the official church of the "ORDRE MARTINISTE", the EGU was headed (since 1908) by Joannie Bricaud, who was the Patriarch of the Gnostic Church. The EGU would later change its name to "EGLISE GNOSTIQUE APOSTOLIQUE". (see Chapter " 1890 ECCLESIA GNOSTICA APOSTOLICA ").


In March of 1895 (specific dates vary) Papus joined the "Ahathoor Temple" of the "HERMETIC ORDER OF THE GOLDEN DAWN" in Paris. Papus receives his initiation into the Neophyte-Degree (0=0) on March 23 at the Temple 'Ahathoor no.7 '. On May 21, 1892, the Matherses (Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers and Moina Mathers / Mina Bergson) decided to leave London and moved to Paris. In Januari 1894, the "Ahathoor-Temple" is consecrated. One source (Hermetic Order of the G.'.D.'. in Florida) states that Papus was a member at the time of consecration. His membership of the G.'.D.'. was short-lived, one year later he would leave the "Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn". In 1903 the G.'.D.'. of Mathers changed its name to "ALPHA ET OMEGA" , due to a schism within the original order. After Mather's death in 1918, Moina returned to London where she established the "Alpha et Omega III -Temple".

Papus received his initiation from Moina Mathers ( membershipnumber 240 )


On May 9th , 1898 the Martinist Order under the leadership of Papus signed a treaty of alliance with the "Illuminaten Orden" of Theodor Reuss from Germany.

In (probably) the fifties Papus' son, Philippe Encausse Jr., published an article in "L'Initiation" which stated that both orders formed a pact, which was ratified by the Aeropagus of the Illuminati and the "board of directors" of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order, which unites "two of the more powerful Brotherhoods of the Western Tradition". The official date of the pact was set on June 13, 1898.

Reuss would later incorporate (as he did with all 'his' organizations) the Order of the Illuminati within the framework of the O.T.O.


The Order, a school for Magnetism, was founded by Hector Durville in 1892. This school established a subdivision in Lyon in 1895 which was headed by Maitre Philippe (A.P. Nizier). Papus was the Vice-President of this school. "The "ORDRE EUDIAQUE" had 7 Degrees which included initiationrites and a theoretical exam for each and every Grade." (France 1850-1900" - F.U.D.O.S.I. Orders & Societies, Part I).



Well known French researcher Gerard Galtier confirms that in 1901 Papus was chartered by John Yarker (Grand Hierophant of the M.'.M.'.) to open the "SWEDENBORGIAN LODGE - I.N.R.I.". This warrant would be later renewed on March 1906. According to yet another source, Papus established in 1906 contact with "LOGE DU TEMPLE DE PERFECTION I.N.R.I.", which worked under the "Grand Loge Swedenborgienne du Rite Primitif et Original des la Franc-Maconnerie", as well as the "Loge Misraimite". Yarker (Yarker's successor would be W.Wynn Wescott) was, amongst others, head of the 'masonic' "SWEDENBORG -RITE", the Rite's full name being "Primitive and Original Rite of Freemasonry, or Swedenborgian Rite". The Rite of Swedenborg was an offshoot of "The Illuminated Theosophists", the British branch of the French "Illuminèes Theosophes". The Rite was established at the end of the 18th century. Apparently, the rite was reestablished around 1859.

In 1877 John Yarker developed the rite, together with Francis George Irwin and Samuel Petty Leather. The "Rite of Swedenborg" consisted of 3 degrees. The Non-masonic part of the rite would develop into the "Church of Swedenborg". According to Reuss' journal, the "Oriflamme"(Nº 0 of the Oriflamme, supplement to Die Übersinnliche Welt, January 1902) Papus even belonged to the "Sovereign Grand Lodge of England". It has always been a subject of discussion, whether Papus has ever been a member of 'regular' masonry or not. Besides the "Oriflamme-reference", I've never seen other sources indicating that Papus was a 'regular' mason.



According to Christopher McIntosh, Papus received his initiation into the "Rite of Memphis-Mizraim" on the 12th of July 1899.

"He sought to fuse his Martinist order with the various stratas of French mystical-occult masonry", thus McIntosh. Who actually initiated Papus into the M.M. McIntosh does not tell. Dr.Philippe Encausse, Papus' son, claimed that his father possessed two M.'.M.'. charters which came from Italy, one of the documents dated March, 25, 1907. However, nothing is known in respect of the actual contents of the documents.

Another charter, presumably dated from 1906, came from the ''Antiguo y Primitivo Rito Oriental de Memphis y Mizraïm' led by Villarino del Villar, a descendant from Giambattista Pessina, successor of Garibaldi, who had united the original "Rite of Misraim" with the "Rite of Memphis" in 1882 (specific dates very)

In 1908, Papus, Charles Detre (aka 'Teder'), and Victor Blanchard (Papus' secretary at the time- see "1934-1951 FUDOSI-Addendum 6 'Victor Blanchard') organized in Paris, France, an international Masonic Conference, "The Masonic and Spiritualist Congress"

('Congres Maconnique Spiritualiste' ) at the temple of the "DROIT HUMAIN". The main themes of the congress were Spiritism, Magnetism, Spiritual Masonry and Esoteric Christianity. Papus received a charter to constitute the "ANTIENT & PRIMITIVE RITE OF FREEMASONRY" in France (more precisely: "The Antient & Primitive Rite"). "The constituting Letters Patent were sent to Berlin from England on June 24th; they were signed (as 'Peregrinos') by Theodor Reuss, who had travelled to Paris for this purpose. Grand Masters for France [on the 24th of June] were Gérard Encausse "Papus" [33°, 90°, 96°} and Charles Détré "Teder" [33°, 97°, X°}. The Oriflamme for December 1909 also credits Détré with the 33°, 90°, and 95°; The nomination of Papus as Grand Maitre National of the M.'.M.'. did not please Rudolf Steiner, at the time GM for Germany of the M.'.M.'. .Steiner apparently despised Papus who he saw as a "Black Magician". One of the results of the Masonic congress of 1908 was the establishment of a "Central Bureau" which was called "Secrétariat de la Fédération Maçonnique Universelle". According to a letter written by Joannie Bricaud, date 1921, the charter which Papus and Detre received from Reuss did not grant them to found a "Sovereign Sanctuary" at the time. France had to wait until 1919, when the Memphis-Misraim rite was revived after the war of '14-'18. " The 'Humanidad' Mother-Lodge was revived at Lyons in accordance with the 1908 [Reuss] warrant. Thus on the 10th of September Brother Joanny Bricaud was granted a warrant [through Reuss] to establish the French Sovereign Sanctuary of the MM [33°, 90°, 96°], and likewise on the 30th of September activated the French foundation of a "Supreme Grand Council of Confederated Rites, Early Grand Scottish Rite, Memphis and Misraim, Royal Order of Scotland" etc " Joanny Bricaud:

Notes Historique sur le Rite Ancien et Primitiv de Memphis-Misraim

Peter R.Koenig ; "the Ordo Templi Orientis phenomenon"

It is stated on the website of the "O.M. des Pays-Bas" that probably on the same occasion Reuss had conferred upon Papus the X* of the O.T.O. for France (X*, 'REX SUMMUS SANCTISSIMUS' , the grade for all national Grand Masters of the O.T.O) and that Papus in turn assisted Reuss in the formation of the O.T.O. Gnostic Catholic Church, as a child of the "Eglise Gnostique de France. The information above credits Téder with the X* of the O.T.O. This is confirmed on a charter given to A.Krumm-Heller in 1908 by Reuss. Teder (Charles Detre) co-signs as "Representante en France le Grand Maitre General de l'Empire d'Allemagne" of the M.'.M.'. The source of Papus' M.'.M.'. charter is the 'Jubilee Edition' of the Oriflamme, Schmiedeberg 1912, the official journal of Reuss' orders, at the time (1912) mainly devoted to the O.T.O. ("ORDO TEMPLI ORIENTIS").

"The "Oriflamme" was published between 1902 and 1914, initially intended as the journal of two of his many inventions, the 'Swedenborg Rite' and an order of Rosicrucians*.When these met with little success, it became the magazine for members of the AASR and MM, but by 1912 it was mainly devoted to the O.T.O." (Peter R.Koenig, "O.T.O.-FAQ" ).

* The order of rosicrucians was the SRIA offshoot 'Societas Rosicruciana in Germania' which existed from 7.7.1902 to 11.7.1907

A lodge that originally belonged to the "Spanish Rite" became the Mother-Lodge of the French branch of the "Antient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim". This lodge was named "Humanidad-Lodge", but as stated before, the French branch was not yet an independent 'obedience'. Apparently, John Yarker, Grand Hierophant of the M.M.rite, was not happy with the activities of Reuss and Papus in France. According to Gerard Galtier in his book 'Maçonnerie Egyptienne' Yarker "nominated George Lagrèze on Sept. 9, 1909 in their place". Lagrèze (mystical nomen- Mikael ) apparently never made use of his charter until August 15, 1944, when he appointed Robert Ambelain as a Delegate of Memphis-Misraim (95)*

It is generally known that no Grand Lodge in France or England would accept Papus as a Mason. The Grand Lodges ' feared' that Papus' organization was a quasi-Masonic body of irregular Masonry, which was, certainly at the end of the first decade of the 20th century, not totally untrue. There has been a lot of speculation whether Papus was at any time a member of regular Masonry, probably not. According to Fr.Roggemans we know this from the archives of Papus himself, because there's no mention of an 'official Initiation' into the three degrees of 'regular Masonry". The Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas states that Papus was refused (around 1889) by the Grand Lodge of France, because Papus was involved with Occultism. We've seen so far that Papus received several charters for the "Antient and Primitive rite of Memphis-Misraim". Apparently, almost all of the French occultists at the time were convinced that Papus derived his Memphis-Misraim authority from the "Spanish Sovereign Sanctuary of Memphis-Misraim". In the book "I Riti Masonici di Misraïm e Memphis", written by Gastone Ventura ( Aldebaran ) and translated into French by Gérard Galtier and Sophie Salbreux, the writer states that most of these charters did not grant any authority at all. It is the 'never-ending story' of the value of all those Masonic documents which were sold at the right price at the time, especially with rites as Yarkers 'Antient and Primitive Rite", "Rite of Cerneau" etc., and all the everlasting tales of disputes over 'legitimacy'. In 1910 Papus said the following with regard to his own Masonic charters;

"In my conversations and correspondences with the illustrious Brother Superior John Yarker, Supreme Head of the "Antient and Primitive Rite of Masonry", with Doctor Wescott of the "Societas Rosicruciana in Anglia", with Villarino del Villar, the illustrious Spanish Mason ….. Many of the foreign Supreme Councils have registered me among their Honorary members or as their representatives in France, which I consider an honour".

Regarding the involvement of Martinists with Masonry 'Sar Ignatius' states as follows:

"At the end of the (19th) century, the main Masonic Obediences of France, particularly the Grand Orient, were predominately humanistic and philosophical. On the fringes of mainline Masonry, were smaller Obediences of a more esoteric and spiritual nature. Most contemporary Martinists were associated with one or more of those Rites and High Grades"

In 1913 John Yarker, the 'Grand Hierophant" of the M.'.M.'., died. Yarker had 'inherit' the rite in 1902. His successor was Theodor Reuss from Germany (Oriflamme, July 1913, p. 2), Yarker's successor in England and Ireland was a Henry Meyer (33*, 90*, 96*). According to various sources Papus inherited Yarker's "Antient & Primitive Rite of Memphis-Misraim".


Many Martinists claim that Papus seems to have been involved in a lineage of genuine rosicrucian descendents. Some claim that this lineage contained men like Charles Nodier (1), Eliphas Levi, Count Golitzyn etc. This assertion seems rather doubtful. Anyway, fact is that Papus was one of the premier members of the OKR+C, of which he would become its president in 1898. George Lagreze (Mikael) was initiated in the "ROSE-CROIX D'ORIENT" by Démétrius Sémélas (Deon), co-founder of the "L'ORDRE DU LYS ET DE L'AIGLE" ("Order of the Lily & the Eagle", see chapter "1914-L'Ordre du Lys et de L'Aigle") in 1914. Lagreze initiated Papus into the "Rose Croix d'Orient". According to Robert Ambelain, in his introduction of the "Sacramentary of the Rose+Croix", "Dr. Encausse (Papus) had received a lineage of them by a member of the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order, who himself had received a lineage in the city of Cairo (Egypt), before 1914. Inside Martinism of that era, no one else had such a lineage, not even Teder (Papus' successor)." In Ambelain's reference to Cairo, he's making reference to the Martinist temple in the capitol city of Egypt. Eugène Dupré, the leader of the Martinists in Egypt (around 1914), allegedly was the founder (or: one of the founders) of 'Le Temple d'Essenie', the Martinist Lodge in Cairo, founded in 1911. This Lodge allegedly had the authority to establish lodges under its jurisdiction (source: O.M.T./T.M.O.). Démétrius Platon Sémélas, a Greek Martinist who'd become a member of the Egyptian Martinist Lodge at Cairo in 1911, founded the ‘Rose-Croix d’Oriënt’ shortly after. Sémélas claimed that ‘Rose-Croix d’Oriënt’ was founded in 1054 by a certain Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople (see "Fudosi Orders & Societies - R+C d'Orient & L'Ordre du Lys et de L'Aigle). When the first World War broke out many French Martinists from abroad returned to France. Dupré was mobilized and Sémélas settled in Paris where he became a close friend of Papus. According to the French T.M.O. , Papus and Sémélas pondered on the idea of replacing the 'Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose-Croix' by the 'Rose-Croix d’Oriënt’ as the inner order (Cercle intérieur) of the Martinist Order. As we've seen before, the OKR+C almost went dormant after the death of Stanislas de Guaita in 1897. The French T.M.O also claims that Démétrius P. Sémélas was involved in the negotiations between the 'Ordre Martiniste' and the masonic 'Rite Ecossais Rectifié', the Rectified Scottish Rite (see also Page 28). It is claimed that Papus requested D.P. Sémélas to draw up a 'Protocol of Agreement' between the Martinist Order and the Rectified Scottish Rite. The T.M.O. claims that D. P. Sémélas had several conversations with a certain Maxime Macaigne and Edouard de Ribaucourt (1865-1936), founder of the 'Centre des Amis' Lodge (1910), of the 'Grande Loge Nationale Indépendante et Régulière' (R.E.R.). The topic of these conversations was the creation of a lodge that was acceptable to both the Martinist Order as well as the Rectified Rite of E. de Ribaucourt. The death of Papus (October 25, 1916) prevented the possible completion of these ideas.

Charles Nodier (1780-1844 ) of which is said that he was already involved with a masonic rite called the "Philadelphes" at a very young age. Supposedly, Nodier also had been a member of the Jacobin Club. In the early 19th century (1802, probably) Nodier wrote of his affiliation with a secret society he described as "Biblical and Pythagorean". In 1803 he spent some months in jail after he wrote a critical parody on Napoleon.After his imprisonment he published a book called "La Peintre de Salzbourg, journal des emotions d'un coeur souffrant, suivi des Meditations du cloitre". As a writer Nodier published various titles but one of his most curious and influential works was published anonymously ; "A History of Secret Societies in the Army under Napoleon". In this book Nodier does not clarify whether he is writing pure fiction or pure fact. In any case, Nodier develops in disguised allegories, a comprehensive philosophy of secret societies. According to Nodier, the 'supreme' secret society is called the "Philadelphes", but, as he explains, an oath binds him to make them known under their real name. One of the 'key-figures' Nodier speaks about is "Eliasin". Eliphas Levi spoke also about 'the One who was to come that would be named Eliasi'n. In 1824 Charles Nodier was appointed Chief Librarian at the famous Arsenal Library. "During his 20 years at the Arsenal Library he was able to supply a centre and rallying place to a knot of young literary men of greater individual talent than himself - the so-called Romanticists of 1830- and to colour their tastes and work very decidedly with his own predilections" ( source : "Timeline of the Authentic Tradition; 1816-1825). He became "the Source" for such young artists as Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Dumas, Delacroix, Gerard de Nerval etc. many of these writers (Hugo, Balzac) and painters were Martinists and members of "Hermetic-Rosicrucian Circles" who drew heavily on the Hermetic tradition in their works. Charles Nodier was assisted by Jean Baptiste Pitois, aka ' Paul Christian' . Both men sorted the complete Arsenal library in the 1830's and claimed to have made interesting discoveries daily. Also at the time, Charles Nodier was elected a member of "The Academy". Nodier was also in contact at the time with Alphonse Louis Constant, better known as Eliphas Levi. On Januari 27, 1844 , Charles Nodier died. Nodier is also listed as a Grand Master of the highly controversial "Prieure de Sion". As stated earlier, The Arsenal Library was incorporated in the National Library of Paris in 1934. The complete original library is incorporated as a special Department of the Bibliothèque Nationale in Paris ...





- short summary on the events leading up to the foundation :

1884; Papus started to initiate candidates into 'Martinism'. In 1887 (specific dates vary +) Papus meets Chaboseau ; developments for a "Martinist organization" were realized. In 1887 the name "ORDRE MARTINISTE" turns up for the first time. Febr., 1889, Official proclamation of the "ORDRE MARTINISTE", published in the review

"l' Initiation". On September 9-16, 1889, the 'CONGRÈS SPIRITE et SPIRITUALISTE INTERNATIONAL' was held in the 'rue Cadet 16, in Paris.On this congress Papus started with his plans for the ACTUAL realization of "L' ORDRE MARTINISTE", as we know the Order today. In 1889 there were already 27 Martinist-Lodges in France, 33 in Germany, 36 in America, and 9 in Sweden. In March,1891 a supreme council of 12 members was officially installed. Papus founded a Martinist order under the name of "ORDRE DES SUPÉRIEURS INCONNUS" in three degrees ;




The title of the 3th grade, 'Adepte' is known since the beginning of the 20th century as "SUPERIEUR INCONNU" The Order added on a later date the 4th Degree, being the grade of "FREE ADEPT" date (in 1911 the 4th degree appeared in "L'Initiation") ; the 4th degree is known today as "Free Initiator" or S.I.I. / S.I. IV (sometimes also known as the Unknown Philosopher degree. + for the most I've used dates as given by the "ORDRE MARTINISTE DE PAPUS", the original order revived in 1952 by Papus' son, Dr.Philippe Encausse Another source regarding the degrees of the O:::M::: is Edouard Blitz' Martinist manual "Ritual and Monitor of the Martinist Order". The manual was published on April 2, 1896 by permission of the Supreme Counsil under Papus. The manual describes the Degree-system as follows :


As practised in France in 1887

First Temple :

ASSOCIATE (Philosophic)


S:::I::: (Kabbalistic)

S:::I::: (Administrative)

Second Temple

Vth Degree

Vith Degree

VIIth Degree

More information on the Degrees and the rituals is given in the Chapter concerned. Source : "Ritual and Monitor of the M.'.O.'." , Dr.Edouard Blitz, General Delegate of the Supreme Counsil of the Martinist Order of the U.S.A. , 1ST edit. April 2, 1896

According to Papus and Chaboseau, Louis Claude de Saint-Martin had intended to establish a rite of seven degrees in 1780. These grades were; 1. Apprenti, 2. Compagnon, 3. Maître, 4. Maître Parfait, 5. Elu, 6. Ecossais, 7. Sage. Finally the degrees were reduced to three degrees; Associé, Initié, and Adepti. The third degree eventually became the "S:::I:::", "SUPERIEUR INCONNU" -degree.

As mentioned earlier on in this chapter, "Papus claimed to have come into possession of the original papers of De Pasqually and to have been given authority by his friend Henri Viscount Delaage, who claimed that his maternal grandfather had been initiated into the order by Saint-Martin himself, and who attempted to revive the order in 1887". (source; "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas"). The order mentioned here as being the order of Saint-Martin, is the controversial "Rectified Rite of Saint-Martin". The subject whether Saint-Martin established a rite or not, has always been at all points debatable. Again, as A.E.Waite states at the beginning of the chapter, there existed a rite in the 18th century called "Ecossais Rectifie de Saint-Martin". The rite arose at the time at the "Lodge -or- Chapter of St.Theodore of Metz". But, as Waite explains, the rite was based on the christian legend of Saint-Martin, Bishop of Tours. Allegedly there lived a man in the 4th century A.D. in France also called Saint-Martin, which was used as a "historical source" for a masonic body under the name of "Rectified Rite of Saint-Martin" (A.E. Waite "a new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry").

The Official installation of the first Martinist Counsil, which consisted of 12 men, was proclaimed in March, 1891. These 12 men were all well known occultists, which knew each other from other esoteric organizations they were involved with. Some of them belonged to the " Fraternité Hermétique de Louxor' (Hbof L) and the"OKR+C", others being Masons of different obediences, mostly Hermetic rites and High Grades.

*except for Oswald Wirth all members of the "Supréme Conseil de la Rose+Croix" (OKR+C) of 1891 were represented in the Martinist council. I've already explained in a previous chapter that the OKR+C was connected to the Martinist Order. After the Martinist S.I. degree most of the members joined the "Ordre kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix" to increase their knowledge of the Kabbalah.

Both Maurice Barrès and Joséphin Péladan soon left the Martinist Counsil (Péladan for obvious reasons, see chapter "1888-OKR+C"), and they were replaced by Marc Haven (Dr.Lalande) and Victor-Emile Michelet (1861-1938). Michelet would later found the "ASSOCIATION DES AMIS DE PÉLADAN" (1920 -1) and "ORDRE MARTINISTE TRADITIONNEL" (1931 OMT/TMO).

In 1893 Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau surrendered his seat in the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order. Chaboseau had been the chief-editor of the review 'Le Voile d'Isis' and secretary of the editorship of the review Psyché, after which he decided to distance himself from the Martinist Order. It is stated that Chaboseau, who's been described as a man of action, was not fascinated by the (speculative) work within the Order's lodges. Chaboseau stated that "all knowledge is useless, useless and selfish, if others cannot immediately benefit from this knowledge" (freely transl. from the original French quote by Chaboseau: Toute connaissance, disait-il « est inutile, vaine et égoïste, qui ne peut profiter immédiatement au bien des autres » ). In 1893 he stopped attending the Order's lodge-meetings and became involved in the propagation of i.a. emancipated ideas (through his writings). In the early 1900's he became a member of the socialist movement. Unlike Papus, Chaboseau had been accepted by the Grand Orient as a Freemason. Chaboseau was a member of the French lodge 'l'Action Socialiste' of the 'Grand Orient de France' (Apprentice, 1907) an later received the 3th degree at the 'loge du Foyer Maçonnique'. He left this lodge in 1919 to become a member of the co-masonic Order 'Le Droit Humain'. Out of respect, Chaboseau was never replaced by Papus within the Supreme Council of the Martinist Order.

Right from the beginning the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" proved to be internationally successful. It is generally known that Papus was a skilful organizer and 'manager' in his time. Like the "THEOSOPHIC SOCIETY" the Martinist Order had branches all over the world. In the 1890's the order had lodges in cities like London (U.K., 2 Lodges), Brussels, Antwerp (Belgium, 3 Lodges), Amsterdam, Muenich (Germany, 3 Lodges), Warschaw, St.-Petersburg (Russia, 2 Lodges), Vienna, Rome, Barcelona (Spain, 3 Lodges), New-York (USA, 37 Lodges), Quebec, Port Saïd, and countries like Panama, Cuba (1), Italy (8), Egypt (1), Argentina (7), Sweden (9), Denmark (1), Bohemia (1), Rumania (1), Switzerland (2), Tunesia (1), Colombia (1).

In 1896 Papus published -in a letter to Edouard Blitz (dated June 26th ) the following list of 'Protectors' or the 'Honorary Committee of International Directors' :

His Majesty King Oscar II

Her Majesty the Queen of Romania

Dr. Gérard Encausse (Papus) - France

Dr. von Hartman - Austria, Occultist

Dr, Lehman-Hohenbert - Germany, Writer

Dr. Th. Schäfer - Germany, famous Mason

Edward Maisland - England, Mystic

Dr. Niels Sjobert - Sweden, Mystic FreeMason

Dr. Eugène H. Schmitt - Hungary, Sociologist

H. A. Sabro - Norway, Journalist

Peter Davidson - United States, Mystic

Sylvestre C. Gould - United States, Scientist

Prof. Carl Michelsen - Denmark - Scientist

The following 'Martinist-memberlist' consists of the order's most famous members who were involved in occultism during a period otherwise known as the "La belle epoque";

Baron Spedalieri and Maria Rosa Tommasi (Italy), George Montière, Stevenard, Caminade, Gary de Lacroze (also a member of Péladan's "Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique et Esthetique du Temple et du Graal"), George Vitoux, Mdm de Wolska, M.Letoquart (New York), Julius Zeier and Gustav Meyrink (Lodge "Der Blauen Stern"), La Plata and Girgois (Argentina), René Philipon (better known under his pseudonym Jean Tabris), Emma Calvé (mistress of Jules Bois, honorary member), Marie-Anne de Bovet, Alfredo Eymerich de Aldao (Spain), Peter Davidson (co-founder of the "Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor"), Leopold Engel (Berlin, founder of the "World League" in 1893, co-founder of 'Union of German Occultists', co-leader "Ordo Illuminati"), Theodor Reuss (O.I, M.M., O.T.O.), Arnoldo Krumm-Heller ('active' in South-America,would later found the F.R.A. ), Alphonso de Wallen, Carl Michelsen and Carl William Hansen (Denmark, Hansen ,aka Ben Kadosh, Grand Master of the Danish Martinists incl. the Kabbalistic Order of the Rose+Cross), Olga de Moussine-Puchkin, Levchine, Valerius Mouraviev-Amurski, Mdm Golovine (adorer of Raspoutin, all members of the lodge in St.Petersburg, Russia), Pierre Bardy, René Guénon, Demesthenos Verzato (Egypt), Clément de Saint-Marq (Belgium, also a member of Péladan's order and writer of i.a. "L'Eucharistie" ), Dr.Edouard Blitz ('Le Souverain Délégate' of the U.S.A.)

source : Marcel Roggemans, Belgium

Other well known Martinists - Novikov,Sar Hieronymous (Emile Dantinne), Eliphas Levi, A.E. Waite, H.P. Blavatsky, John Yarker, J.I. Wedgwood, Victor Blanchard, Honorè Balzac, Pamela Coleman Smith, Margaret Peeke, Czar Nicholas II of Russia, Emma Calve *, Harvey Spencer- and Ralph M.Lewis, Jollivet-Castelot, Joannie (Jean) Bricaud, Constant Chevillon, Robert Ambelain, Armand Toussaint, Robert Amadou, Jean Dubuis, Raymond Bernard, Emilio Lorenzo, …

Rosa Emma Calve was a famous French singer and was made a 'honorary member' of Papus' Ordre Martiniste on November 11, 1892 in Paris. She was also a friend of the priest Saunière (The "Rennes le Chateau" mystery) and mistress of Jules Bois. The friendship between Emma and Saunière is considered to be an "invention" of Pierre Plantard.The document Emma received (a 'Diplome d'Honneur' ) can be found at

- Rennes le Chateau -Emma Calve 'Superieur Inconnu' -

(1) the "ASSOCIATION DES AMIS DE PÉLADAN" was founded in 1920 by Victor-Emile Michelet, as a 'circle of friends of Péladan'. The association was not an order. Its purpose was to study the works of Joséphin Péladan. Some of their members were ; Mdm Péladan, Gabriel Boissy, Albert de Pouvourville, G.L.Tautain, Edouard Willermoz, Maurice Venoize and Maurice Gallard. Speaking of Péladan, not unimportant to know is that Joséphin Péladan was the Grand Master of the 'officially registered' "ORDER OF THE TEMPLE OF JERUZALEM", founded by Jacques de Molay. De Molay's first successor was a Jean-Marc de Larmeny (1314-1324). Péladan's presuccessor was H.M. Edward VII, Prince of Wales and King of England (1873-1910). Péladan's successor was H.M. Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany (1910-1915). source: Marcel Roggemans, Belgium. In 1893, the Martinists of Lyon received the complete archives of J.B. Willermoz' C.B.C.S., 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte', and the archives of the ELUS COHEN temple of Lyon. Brother Cavarnier received the archives from the widow of Joseph Pont, the latter being the successor of Willermoz. " By the mediation of M. Elie Steel, a bookseller of Lyons, Papus was placed in communication with Cavernier, and was enabled to copy the principal documents". Papus regarded the gift as an event of major importance. In 1908 Papus, with the help of Detre (Papus' secretary) and Blanchard (secretary-general of the congress), organized the "The Masonic and Spiritualist Congress" (' Congres Maconnique Spiritualiste' ) at the temple of the "DROIT HUMAIN" (French co--Masonic order, 'Ordre Macon Mixte le Droit Humain'), as stated before. One of the aims of the congress, in all probability, was to establish an international federation of esoteric (masonic) rites and orders. Victor Blanchard referred to it as "the first autonomous Congress of Occultism" in his opening discourse. We know that Papus had a dream to 'unite all orders' under one 'Universal Rite', so to speak. Papus' dream was never actually realized, due to the war which was at hand and his premature death.One of Papus' associates on the Congress, Theodor Reuss from Germany, organized a 'World Congress of Freemasons' in Zurich during the summer of 1920 which was analogous to the congress of 1908. Reuss' main objective was also to establish an 'International Union of Freemasons' (which -also- failed ; see "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." and Peter R.Koenig's "Veritas Mystica Maxima or …" at

In my notes on Reuss' 1920 congress there's a reference (-Robert Vanloo) to Papus federation of orders, under the name of "Federation Maconnique Universelle".

In 1907 Rene Guenon is initiated into Martinism. Rene Guenon is recognized today as one of the great Christian mystics of the 20th century. Before Guenon became a member of the "Ordre Martiniste", he had taken several classes of one of Papus' organizations, probably the "ECOLE HERMETIQUE". He was also initiated into the "Antient and Primitive Rite of Memphis-Mizraim" at the "Humanidad-Lodge 204" on October 25, 1907. On April 10, 1908 Guenon was raised to the 3th degree of Master Mason. Guenon also was also ordained as a Bishop of the Gnostic Church as Tau Palingénius . He was consecrated somewhere between 1907 and 1910, the exact date is unknown to me (probably 1909, see "1890 Eclessia Gnostica").

In 1908 on the ' Congres Maconnique Spiritualiste' Guenon was one of the members of the organization. Apparently Guenon left the audience when Papus expressed the concept of reincarnation in his openingspeech, because he considered this concept a false notion. At the congress Guenon received the 30* (Knight Kadosh) and 90* of the M.'.M.'. from Reuss. Guenon came in conflict with Papus and his associates when Guenon and Victor Blanchard tried to establish a Templar order, "Ordre du Temple Rénové" of which Guenon would be the Grand Commandeur and which i.a. included the Bro. Blanchard and Marc Haven. On March 26, 1909, Papus 'forced' the Martinists to make their choice between Guenon's Templar order and the 'Ordre Martiniste'. The order was short-lived, and Guenon and his followers broke with Papus. Apparently, Blanchard 'broke' with Guenon ( note: other sources state that this was not Victor Blanchard of the later 'Ordre Martiniste & Synarchique') Guenon did not break with Masonry,on the contrary. At the times, René Guenon was also a close friend of Barlet, of whom Guenon received a considerable part of his knowledge of the teachings of such orders as the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor and the OKR+C. Barlet even entrusted Guenon with the insignia and documents of the OKR+C, Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix. In 1925 Guenon meets a L.A. Charbonneau-Lassay. Through Charbonneau-Lassay he comes in contact with various isolated Christian-Hermetic groups (i.a. Fraternite de Paraclete). In 1927 Guenon contacted the "FRATERNITE DES POLAIRES" … (see Chapter "1908 – Fraternite des Polaires").

In 1911 Bricaud's "L'Eglise Gnostique Universelle" became the "official" church of the Papus' "Ordre Martiniste". The Supreme Council had issued a decree of recognition. As mentioned before, The intention of the "Ordre Martiniste", as founded by Papus and Chaboseau, was to act as a preliminary order and gateway to Higher Degrees and teachings. We already have seen that many Martinists, who'd received the S:::I::: -degree, would join the OKR+C to study the Kabbalah and the Occult arts on a higher level (as mentioned before, Papus originally had the 'Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor' in mind for the purpose). During Papus' lifetime there existed Martinist Lodges which conferred 'Higher Degrees of a para-Masonic character' (see "The Degrees and Rituals of the 'Ordre Martiniste' "). The desire of Papus and his associates was to return to the "veritable Martinism of the 18th. century", in other words, a Martinist Order consisting of 3 "exterior" Degrees, followed by Higher Degrees which incorporated the "Elus Cohen", and the curriculum of the OKR+C, and "Memphis-Misraim". Also incorporated was Joannie (Jean) Bricaud's " L'Eglise Gnostique Universelle" as the official church of the order. In 1914 Papus and Teder (C.Detre) approached Dr.Ribeaucourt, Grand Master of the R.E.R., "Rite Ecossais Rectifié" (Scottish Rectified Rite). As stated before, the R.E.R. included Willermoz' "C.B.C.S". , 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' , which had connections to Baron Von Hund's "Stricte Observance" (Willermoz had implemented the teachings of the E.C. within the rite of "Stricte Observance" in 1777).

They came to an agreement with Ribeaucourt to create a Martinist Grand Chapter, which would be composed exclusively of High Degree Masons. The Martinist Grand Chapter would act as a "bridge" between the O:::M::: and the R.'.E.'.R.'.

Unfortunately for the M:::O::: Grand Chapter, the war, the death of Papus in 1916, and especially the change of Grand Mastership of the R.'.E.'.R.'., brought an end to the initiative of Papus, Teder (Charles Détre), and Dr.Ribeaucourt …

In 1914 Papus allegedly tried to establish connections with the "L'ORDRE DU LYS ET DE L'AIGLE " ( 'the Order of the Lily & the Eagle'. See also Page 21 ), founded in Egypt by Maria Routchine-Dupre, also known as Dea, with the help of Dimitri Sémélas-Déon. Eugéne Dupré was the head of the O:::M::: in Egypt. Dimitri Sémélas (Déon) was the founder of the Rose-Croix d'Oriënt (1912), and the initiator of Géorges Bogé de Lagrèze (see Chapter "1914 L'ORDRE DU LYS ET DE L'AIGLE").

Papus' whole life had been centered around the development of the Martinist Order. He created an order, the "Ordre Martiniste" ('L'Ordre des Supérieurs Inconnus' ),

he promoted Martinism all over the world and kept the order united during his lifetime. When Papus died in 1916, the unity of the order died with him … …

Charles Détre (Téder, 1855-1918) succeeded Papus as Grand Master of the O:::M:::

Not much is known about the short of Téder's 'reign'. We know that when Jean Bricaud succeeded Téder after his death in 1918 the unity of the order really bursted, but the succession of Papus by Téder was also disputed by several high-ranking Martinists. According to one source, in "l'Encyclopédie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ED. 2000", Papus even seem to have wished that Ernest Loiselle, the Librarian of the Supreme Council, would disband the Martinist Order !

Another 'curious' incident described in the 'l'Encyclopédie la Franc-Maconnerie' , is the appointment of Téder as Edouard Blitz's representative ! Blitz, who left the Martinist Order as Grand Master of the U.S.A., had founded his own order in 1902 (see "the M.O. abroad- America"). According to this source, Téder had also adapted Blitz' Rituals (1) in French before succeeding as a G.M. of the "Ordre Martiniste". This source (R.A.) does not mention the date of the supposed adaption of Blitz' rituals.

We know for a fact that the definitive rituals of the "Ordre Martiniste" were attributed to Téder by Papus in 1911. According to some sources Téder's version was based on the hand-written rituals of François-Charles Barlet (see "The Degrees and Rituals of the 'Ordre Martiniste' "). But it is almost certain that Téder adapted Blitz' rituals.

Around 1912 Papus' authority shrank within the O*M*. There had been many difficulties over the last couple of years within the Order (Guenon, Papus' activities in Russia, etc.) and Papus decided to appoint Charles Détre (Téder ) as head of the Supreme Council (in Papus' name, so to speak or 'semi-official' ). Apparently Téder started to work 'independently' from Papus .

It is claimed that Blitz had written new rituals for the M:::O::: in, or around, 1901. These were the rituals that Téder supposedly adapted.

"But what caused the shrinking of Papus' authority within the Order ?"

Without doubt, Papus was, and still is, seen as a brilliant and great organizer who'd achieved in presenting the Martinist Order as a coherent and structural international organization. But if we analyse the period of Papus' reign ("officially" between 1891 and 1916) there's no talk of a constant coherent Order doctrine and teachings. The doctrines of the Order developed over time. In the 1890's Papus and his associates were merely focused on creating an umbrella-organization which included all the occult and esoteric currents of the Western Mystery Tradition under the banner of the Martinist Order. At the time, Papus' main interest was occultism (Kabbala, Symbolism, Magic etc.), later, after he met Philippe de Lyon ('Maitre Philippe, 1849-1905), Papus' interest turned more towards (Christian) mysticism. In short: The Martinist Order had to start from scratch (in a manner of speaking), and grew steadily, along with its leaders. In the beginning Papus established the 'Groupe Indipendant d'Etudes Esoteriques' where occultism was studied, he declared that the G.I.D.E.E. was the outer court of the Martinist Order. Later the G.I.D.E.E. became the 'Ecole Hermetique' etc., all signs of an organization in development. A fine example of the, sometimes slow, developments within the Martinist Order is the corpus of letters of Dr. Edouard Emanuel Blitz ((1860-1915)), the Sovereign National Delegate for America, to Dr. Gérard Emcausse (Papus): For instance, Blitz responding to a letter from Sédir, January 9, 1902, states:

"Finally, in ending this I tell you, that from 1896 or '97 I prayed, begged Papus not to compromise the whole Order by creating some clandestine Masonic Rite; I prayed and begged him to send some teachings for our members... we were promised everything, teachings, a copy of the archives, new degrees, etc... but nothing was ever realized. We finally came to the conclusion that the Order in France is a myth, that the Supreme Council ... functions only in the astral... For my part, I hope that my initiates decide to abandon this new Taxilian Order to permit me to pursue more serious matters. If, however, [the Supreme Council] wants to give the Order a real, solid base... my 'providential documents' will be put to use... in this whole affair, I sought only to work for the good of the Order."

(Edouard Blitz & American Martinism / Scottish Rite Research Society?transl. T.Vincent II)

As Papus' interests changed towards mysticism (after 1898), the Ordre Martiniste came to occupy an increasingly important place in Papus' Occultist movement, "since the Christian illuminism it espoused meshed quite well with its leader's new sensibility." ("The Esoteric: Crossing Over" Institute for Sociology and the History of Ideas ). But several of the original dignitaries alienated themselves from Papus and his Order. In 1907 Victor-Emile Michelet retired from the Martinist Order and in 1910 Sédir, one of Papus' closest associates, left the Martinist Order. Many members of the Martinist Order joined the School of Magnetism of Henri Durville (see "Fudosi Orders & Societies: 1850-1900 France").

In 1911 the Martinst Rituals of Téder are published; in reality -as stated on Page 27 - the rituals were probably written by Edouard Blitz. Blitz had written these rituals in 1900/1901 and had sended them in 1901 to Papus. In September 1912 the final edition of "L'Initiation" is published, a triple-edition combining the issues of July, August and September 1912.

Papus apparently had a presentiment at the time about the dark clouds which gathered together above the horizon of Europe. He 'prophecied' the forthcoming First World War in several writings of his around 1912-1913. He became more and more involved with the issue of social reformations, politics, and his views on this subject which were, of course, based on the philosophy of his "Intellectual Master", St-Yves d'Alveydre… …

The original intention of Papus and his associates was to create one central Order which unified all Occult orders in the spirit of John Yarker and Theodor Reuss.

The Martinist Order Papus created with its 'original' three degrees was ment as a preliminary order to "to prepare its members for entry into an Order that could confer an authentic initiation on those who showed themselves able to receive it ". In 1888 the "Higher Order", as foreseen by Papus, was the "Fraternité Hermétique de Louxor", the H.B.of L. Eventuelly, for reasons unknown to me, the "Higher Order" became the "Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix", the OKR+C.

In 1893 the Martinist Order had obtained the original archives of Willermoz' C.B.C.S. and the archives of the "Elus Cohen" of Lyon. Later on Papus also incorporated the Memphis-Mizraim rite into his organization-system. The whole 'Rite' was connected with the L'Eglise Gnostique Universelle, the Gnostic Church which acted as the official church of the "Ordre Martiniste", thus creating a Martinist Order which had High Degrees of an Occult character, which were connected with practical Kabbalah and Esoteric Masonry... "The Martinist Order is an active center for initiation. It was established with the purpose to disseminate widely the teachings of Occultism, according to the ways of the Western Christian tradition." (Papus).

At the end of his life Papus had created an order which reminded of the Martinism of the 18th century, a system which incorporated Occult High Degrees.

When Papus died the M*O* had more than 160 regular Lodges all over the world. In 1918, when the smoke had cleared, the most important figures from the 19th century occult movement were all gone; Papus, Péladan, De Guaita …. "But the visions they had nurtured remained…" In the eyes of the French visionairies mankind stood at the dawn of a new period in time, a period which awaited the long-expected Kingdom of the Paraclete ….


The M:::O::: Abroad


In 1897 (July 30th ) Papus initiated Russian violinist Olga de Moussine-Pouchkine ("Hathor") into the Martinist "Supérieur Inconnu" degree. In 1899 Mme de Moussine-Pouchkine is nominated as "Grand Maître de l'Ordre Martiniste" for Russia.

In 1901 Papus visited Russia, accompanied by his 'spiritual teacher", Maitre de Philippe (Anthelme Philippe Nizier, 1842-1905) from Lyon. Together they visited Czar Nicolas II of Russia. In 1900, supposedly, Maitre Philippe had already been in contact with Grand Duke Wladimir through Papus. Whether Papus did initiate the Czar is not sure, because Martinism had already been introduced in Russia by Prince Kourakine. Saint Martin's first propagandist in the 18th century was Johann Georg Schwarz, who was born in Transylvania and who sought to reorient the Russian (masonic) lodges on the basis of both the Rosicrucian system and Saint-Martin's Lyons Reformation. Saint-Martin's philosophy had been quit successful in Russia at the time, due to Saint-Martin's affinity with the theosophical philosophy of Jacob Böhme.

Kourakine had been initiated into Martinism by Louis Claude de Saint-Martin, when Kourakine represented his country in France as a diplomat. Kourakin introduced Martinism in Russia as the initiator of Nicolas Ivanovitch Novikov ( 1744 - 1818 ). Nicolai Novikov was a writer, publisher and dignitary of French Masonry and of the Rosicrucians (18th century German Gold-and Rosycross) in Russia.

Nevertheless it is quite possible that Papus initiated the Czar into his "Ordre Martiniste". According to James Webb in "the Occult Establishment", Papus installed the Czar as the head of a Martinist Lodge. Papus served the Czar and his wife, Czarina Alexandra, both as physician and occult consultant. According to the "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas" Papus "allegedly conjured up the spirit of Alexandre III, Czar Nicholas' father, who prophesied that the Czar would meet his downfall at the hand of revolutionaires. Papus allegedly informed the Czar that he would be able to magically avert Alexander's prophesy so long as he was alive (Czar Nicholas was executed in 1917, 141 days after Papus' death). This story is most likely untrue, because many sources state that at that time Papus was not even in Russia. There are no entries in Papus' diary on the supposed conjuration. Marc Haven (Dr.Lalande), Papus' partner at the time even wrote an official 'Dementi' ( denial ). Papus would visit Russia again twice, in 1905 and 1906. "During their later correspondence, Papus warned the Czar and his wife a number of times against the influence of Rasputin. In 1910 Dr.Czinski is appointed Sovereign Delegate of the Russian Martinist Order. The advisor of State, Gregoire Ottonovich de Mébés presides over the opening of a new Lodge in St.Petersburg.


In America the Order was represented by Edouard Blitz, who was the "Souverain Délégate" for the 'Ordre Martiniste' in America. Blitz was born in Belgium and was a Jewish emigrant, descending from the 'old' Martinists. Blitz was also an initiate of the 'Chévaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte' and of 'Memphis-Misraim'. He was the direct successor of the 'Elus Cohen', being the successors of Antoine Pont in America.On June 21, 1902 Blitz broke with the Martinists in France and founded the "AMERICAN RECTIFIED MARTINIST ORDER". It is said that Blitz did not want to be associated with a Martinist Order that had 'changed' to a quasi-Masonic rite. On June 2, 1902 a General Convocation was held in Cleveland, Ohio, where an official 'Manifesto' was issued by Blitz' Council. The 'American Manifesto' referred, amongst others, to certain hidden Grades within Blitz' Rite "which came out of that marriage between Martinism and the Rite of the Strict Observance", thus A.E.Waite in his 'Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry". After the foundation of the "Ordre Martiniste" with its three Degrees in 1891, through the years the O:::M::: would develop into an order which also conferred higher degrees upon their members. Being a 'regular' Mason himself, Blitz did not want to be associated with an order that could be considered clandestine by regular, legitimate Masonry. Blitz was replaced by Margaret B.Peeke, who was chosen by the 'Supreme Council'. After the 'American Manifesto' was published, the Supreme Counsil in Paris replied with an 'Edict from the East' which was published in a periodical called "Star in the East". The Edict 'rectified' certain decisions of the former President and his Delegates and furthermore there was an official announcement regarding Peeke's authorization as 'Inspectrice Générale de l'Ordre pour les Etats-Unis' (Inspectress-General). When Peeke died in 1908 she was replaced by the French Supreme Coucil with François L. Gauthey of New York, with the title of Delegate General for the USA. Gauthey received his diploma on 19 February 1909. Due to lack of assistance from France, the American Martinist Order died out in the U.S.A. Blitz' "American Rectified Martinist Order" was only accessible to Masons. Both branches became extinct in the first decades of the 20th century. Blitz proclaimed he held a direct lineage to De Pasqually and Saint-Martin, through the R.E.R. (Régime Écossais Rectifié" or "Rectified Scottish System), which included the C.B.C.S., and the "Ordre Interieure", which were transmitted by the 'Grand Priory of Helvetia' in Geneva, Switzerland. According to Papus' son, Philippe Encausse , Blitz died somewhere between 1920 and 1924. But we know though Harold V.B. Voorhis -from a paper he delivered at the Annual Meeting of the Grand College of Rites held in Washington, D.C. on 20 February 1943 - that Blitz accurate date of Blitz'death was February 10, 1915. One of the S.I.IV's (Martinist Initiator) from the Peeke lineage was George Plummer (Herodotus), who was in touch with Dr.Edward Brown and his "Temple of the Rosy Cross" from 1899 onwards, Brown being the successor of Pascal Beverly Randolph. Plummer was also one of the leaders of Gould's restructured S.R.I.A. in 1912. Plummer's successor as head of the S.R.I.A. in America was "Mother Serena", who was also a S.I.IV from Peek's lineage. Another occultist which helped introducing Martinism to America was, as mentioned before, Peter Davidson of the Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor. Davidson represented the "ORDRE MARTINISTE" during his 'American period' in the H.B.of L. colony in Georgia, USA. He also published a journal for the members of the Fraternite de L'Etoile, of which Davidson was the head of the American branch. Apparently this journal, the "Morning Star", acted as the official journal of the Martinist Order in America for a short period of time… As mentioned before, in 1909 the official Martinist journal in America is called "Treshold ". Blitz did not accept Davidson as a Martinist due to his activities and the H.B. of L., which Blitz did not 'recognize', to put it mildly. In spite of th efforts of Blitz, and later Peeke as well as Gauthey, the Martinist Order died out in the U.S.A. There was a constant lack of "documents necessary to faciliate the operation of the Order", as Gauthey put it in a letter -dated January 2, 1912 - addressed to Papus. All the material was in French (as most still is today), no translations were made available to the English speaking communities overseas, in other words: The Martinist Order in the U.S.A. did not have its teachings, its doctrines or whatsoever. Like Blitz stated in a letter written to Papus, dated April 2, 1901:

"..aside from the little summary of a ritual, I have never received the least instruction"



Copie of a circular distributed by Blitz addressed to the American delegates in 1902:

Nevada, (Missouri) January 2, 1902.

Dear Sir and Brother,

The Supreme Council of the Martinist Order residing in Paris, France, in its recent « REGLEMENT ADMINISTRATIF » for Lodges and Delegations,

1) - Having laid down a plan of work, which the greatest majority of our Members are unable to follow owing to certain obligations taken freely and voluntarily in other Fraternities, thereby causing the entire Order to be confounded with so-called c l a n d e s t i n e associations by persons unacquainted with our work in America ;

2) - After repeated respectful remonstrances and final ultimatum presented by the Sovereign-delegate-General for this continent in regard to the irregularity and illegal character of such dangerous and dishonorable innovation, the President of the Supreme council of France, speaking in behalf of that Assembly, having declared his unwillingness to amend the said « REGLEMENT ADMINISTRATIF » in order that our Brethren be permitted to act honorably to themselves and the other institutions of which they share the rights and benefits of membership ; and

3) - The Grand Master, President of the said Supreme Council, having threatened, in a private letter to his Sovereign-Delegate-General, to dissolve all Martinist formation throughout the World rather than to allow the America Branch to refuse recognition of the Supreme Council of France, or declare its own independance ;

Therefore it is deemed meet and proper that the undersigned should, and the Sovereign-Delegate-General, President of the Grand Council of America, does herby call a GENERAL CONVOCATION of the Martinist Order in America to be held in some central city in the United States (probably Cleveland, Ohio) the time and place to be designated within next 30 days, after conferring by correspondence with the different Martinist Lodges and Groups, such meeting when convened to take such action in the premises as the seriousness of the occasion and the honorable welfare of the Order in the Americas may require, and the undersigned would respectfully request that each Martinist formation send one of its ablest members to such meeting for the purpose of hearing and discussing the situation created by the arbitrary and unreasonable « Promulgation » of the Supreme Council of France in its Rules and Regulations for Lodges and Delegations. It is highly desirable that each Martinist formation should be represented at this meeting in order that each Group may be told word of mouth of its own representative of the imperative but impossible regulations promulgated as above stated, and that each lodge or group may be informed by its own representative of the exact character and nature of the requirements of said « Promulgation ».

When such MEETING shall have convened and the « Promulgation » in its entirety laid before the Convocation, either one of two courses will be left open to us in this Country :

a) - Either forswear and perjure ourselves who are affiliated with other honorable institutions, or

b) - Adept a set of resolutions, something like the following :

Resolved : The Grand Council of the Martinist Order in America severs all affiliation with the Supreme Council of France and all bodies placed under the jurisdiction of the same.

Resolved : The Grand Council of the Martinist Order in America, under the title of « SOVEREIGN-GRAND-COUNCIL-GENERAL » as heretefore, continues the administration of the Order, according to its Statutes and Regulations.

Revolved : The Martinist Order placed under the jurisdiction of the Sovereign Grand Council General, shall be known as the « AMERICAN MARTINIST ORDER » to distinguish it from that placed under any other obedience.

Dear Sir and Brother,

You are fraternally requested to cause the present announcement to be read at you next regular meeting and designate by vote of your lodge or group, the representative who, with yourself or delegate, will represent your body at the General Convocation which, in all probability, will be held in the month of June 1902.

Very fraternally yours,

[signé] É. Blitz \

Sov Del Gen, Pres G C of A




Not much is known of the English Martinists at the time, except for some information A.E. Waite is giving in his book "A new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" (about 1920). According to Waite, The English Martinists broke with the Supreme Counsil in Paris for similar reasons as Blitz's. This happened "during the course of 1902", thus Waite. An "INDEPENDENT AND RECTIFIED RITE OF MARTINISM" was 'officially'constituted. The English "Rectified Rite" differed from Blitz' Rectified Rite by the fact "that it sought no recognition in Masonic circles and initiated both sexes. It remained, however, in full sympathy with the Rectified Order, as this was being propagated in America". The Rite made use of transmuted Rituals and was divided in Three Degrees ;




According to Waite, the English Rectified Rite appeared not to be successful and seemed "to have fallen asleep ..." Waite was, amongst others, a Martinist. He probably received his "initiation" by communication. Later on in his life, Waite went to Switzerland to receive initiation into the CBCS , through the help of Edward Blitz, himself a CBCS initiate . According to the introductory pamphlet of Trophimus' Rose-Croix Martinist Order (Greely, Colorado) Dion Fortune was also associated to Martinism ( Dion Fortune, member of Mather's "Alpha & Omega", after which she founded the "Society of Inner Light"). There's also some 'evidence' that William Wynn Wescott (S.R.I.A., one of the founders of the "Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn) had received the S.I. degree. The following text is from R.A. Gilbert's "William Wynn Wescott and the Esoteric School of Masonic Research";

" A note of 1895 in John Yarker’s hand (now in The Yarker Library at Maida Vale) refers to ‘the English version of the Order of (Le Philosophe Inconnu) Louis Claude St. Martin in Three Grades ‘Ethical’ ", Translated by W. W. Westcott 1880/1893 from mss. of 1778’. The note adds that ‘Dr. W. W. Westcott, a member of the Three Grades of the ethical Order of St. Martin, has permission to give them, without fee to anyone he deems suitable’. This is clearly a reference to L’Ordre Martiniste, which was founded in 1884 by the French occultist Papus (Dr. Gerard Encausse) and the rituals of which were produced between 1887 and 1890. If Westcott was translating Martinist texts in 1880 they were unlikely to have been rituals" (R.A.Gilbert)

In Fr.Fiducius' article "La Venerable figura del Maestro Papus" the writer states that Papus appointed a "Sovereign General Delegate" among one of the members of a "Masonic Organization" which had its seat in Manchester. The writer of course refers to the circle around John Yarker. A "Principal Inspector" is appointed in London and special delegates are appointed in Southampton, Edinborough, Glasgow, Dublin, and Birmingham, thus Fr. Fiducius…


On May 9, 1898 a covenant was signed which confirmed an alliance between the Martinist Order and the Illuminati Order of Leopold Engel from Germany. One of the members of the I.O. was Reuss. Both Reuss and Papus were members of the T.S. at the time. Other famous members were Karl Kellner and Gustav Meyrink. Meyrink soon left after some quarrels with Reuss …

On June 24, 1901 Papus chartered Theodor Reuss as Grand Master for Germany. The title Reuss received as Head of the German Martinists, was Inspecteur Spécial, I.'.M.'. , the original warrant ;

Ordre Martinist

Theodor Reuss

Par la Présente Le F.'. Theodor Reuss de Berlin est autorisé à Représenter L'ORDRE à titre de:

Inspecteur Spécial (I.'.M.'.) avec siège à Berlin

[24 Juin 1901] [sign. Papus]



Martinist Order

Theodor Reuss

"By these presents Brother Theodor Reuss of Berlin is authorised to represent the ORDER under the title of: Inspector General (I.M.) with his seat at Berlin... 24th of June 1901 ... Papus."

It is said that Reuss used a visiting card during the war (14-18) which described him as A.C.Reuss "Honorary Professor at the High School for Applied Medical Science (University of France)". Reuss probably referred to Papus' centre for Higher Learning, one the institutions Papus had established. It seems that Papus' institutions for 'alternative' medical science at the time were known abroad. Another German living in South-America, Arnoldo Krumm-Heller, contacted Papus in 1897 for advise. Krumm-Heller, 18 years of age at the time, had discovered his abilities as a healer and a psychic at a young age. In 1906 he would take part in certain 'scent-experiments' under the leadership of Papus in Paris. Papus made Krumm-Heller a 'Honorable Member' of the 'SUPREME CONSEIL d'INITIATION, ORDRE HUMANITAIRE ET SCIENTIFIQUE POUR LE DEVELOPEMENT DES ETUDES ESOTERIQUE DE l'ORIENT'. On Januari 24, 1908 an announcement is published in the first edition of Francois-Charles Barlet's spiritualistic journal "L'Etoile D'Orient - Revue de Hautes Etudes Psychiques" regarding the foundation of "Centre Esoterique Oriental de France". In 1908 Krumm-Heller apparently was appointed one of the "Delegues Generaux de l'Ordre en Occident", as a delegate for Germany in Paris. Barlet was the representative in France of a Albert de Sarâk, a well-known conjuror and swindler at the time. De Sarâk headed the "CENTRE ESOTÉRIQUE ORIENTAL". In 1902 he had founded the "Oriental Esoteric Center of the United States of America, under Obedience to the Supreme Esoteric Council of the Initiates of Tibet ". Krumm-Heller was already made a member of the "Initiates of Tibet" in 1902. Barlet joined in 1907, becoming its President for France. But Sarâk was under heavy attack from the esoteric community. Both Barlet and Krumm-Heller left the disreputable organization at the end of 1908. Krumm-Heller was initiated in the "Ordre Martiniste" but the date is unknown (between 1905-1910 probably). It is stated that he was a Martinist (Membre Titulaire) of Lodge "Hermanubis" , registernumber 192 .


"Ein Leben fuer die Rose" Peter R. Koenig

At the end of the first decade Krumm-Heller started to establish Lodges in several countries of South-America under the jurisdiction of Papus. Krumm-Heller was also a member of the OKR+C. In 1927 he would found his own order, the " Antique Ordo Rosea Crucis", which is known today as the "FRATERNITAS ROSICRUCIANA ANTIQUA".


Baron Adolf Leonhardi von Platz, a member of Parliament in the 1890's, asked papus in a letter for his approval to establish a Martinist Lodge in Prague. The Baron represented an 'occult circle of friends'. Many of these friends were already a member of Mdm Blavatsky's TS. The Theosophic circle became Lodge no.12, "Der Blauen Stern" and in 1893 this Martinist Lodge already had eight S::I:: members, each S.I. leading a group of 10 up to 15 members. "Der Blauen Stern" attracted many intellectuals with an interest in occultism, among which such personalities as the authors Julius Zeyer and Gustav Meyrink, author of various esoteric novels and mystic. At the time he was still a bankmanager. After being a member of many Rosicrucian, Masonic, Martinist, and Theosophic societies, orders, and brotherhoods, he finally became convinced that the "Truth" could not be found within these organisations ("superficiality, theistic fanatics !") but were to find within ones heart, thus Meyrink (see also chapter " 1923 ORDO AUREAE & ROSAE CRUCIS"). The following text is a chapter from Karl Weinfurter's "History of Occultism", published in 1932, which documents the moment that Leonardi introduced "Martinism" to the Theosophical "Inner circle" of Meyrink and company. Weinfurter had been a member of a Martinist Lodge in Bohemia :

"And there during one visit in Prague baron Leonhardi mentioned some delightful news, that we would be brought into one French occult society. Of this we were overwhelmingly delighted and we said so. Our task was to read the book by Mabell Colins "Light on the Path" perhaps to understand it. It it is rather mystical and very deep and I am to this day convinced, that it wouldn't have been possible for us to have not understood it. We had a good German translation of this, and we studied it. We debated about its contents and everyone spoke differently. Leonardi was however content with our discussions, and gave us an additional taskL we were to study Goethe's text "Unterhaltungen deutscher Ausgewanderter" and read the "fairy tale" in it. This "fairy tale" represents a broad spectrum of symbols and its exegis is very difficult. Up until today nobody knows for sure what this great German poet was trying to say. It was a tough nut, but we simply listened and Leonhardi was content. Then began a period of waiting. There were always explanations -- until once day Meyrink held a telegram saying that the baron was coming and that we would be initiated. We had already heard from the baron that we should each obtain a golden chain from our necks. As it happened though my pocket was significantly exhausted,and I was embarrassed. But lord "R." a very sentimental and giving man gave me a chain. And then came the celebratory meeting, in which would be the "initiation."

The baron brought us a secret pass-word, and a sign, which as is known, allows entry into all secret occult societies and others, and then he told us that we were entering the order of the "Unknown Philosopher." This name signifies an adept, or an initiate, and is generally very well known in a variety of French occult orders. In the end, we all held a small golden medal on which was in blue enamel decorated a six-pointed star and four specific letters. The reader should recall, that before I wrote of clairvoiant attempts, in which Leonhardi appeared in a sceance at Na Porici. I had then seen this very same symbol, that the baron then carried from his neck. (p. 54)

And it was all. We never heard anything else about this secret order. We

never met any other members besides the baron, and nobody ever knew if this

order existed, or if it ever really existed. We later learned that the baron, in order to amuse us, played a harmeless trick on us. It is possible, however, that he was actually a member of this order. (Perhaps) We later didn't want to belong.

Subsequently, however, Leonardi recommended the writings of John the Babtist

Kerning, a German freemason, who carried in his rituals and symbolic masonry a road and which was the last european mystic who published for the


Another interesting document, derived from Emanuel Lesehrad's "In the Steps of Secret Societies", which was published in 1935, gives a detailed description of the Lodge's ( Prague) work in 1889. This document was distributed among the brothers (among the members of the Prague-Lodge in 1899 were J.K.P.Drazdak, Hauner, Posche (Emmanuelle), Paul Leppin and K.Weinfurter).

Document ;

News of the movement S::I::

The Highest order set out on a tour of the work of the lodges of its observers.

Whoever has any work, literary or from history, or from occult work (5-6

pages), send it to you initiator and this delegation. Work for that will be

set out at a conference that is gathered in Paris.

Delegat from Kairo was invited in order to write his memorandum about Babyst

(a secret society in Persia) and Br.:: in San Francisco, in order to write

a memorandum about secret societies in China, and also studies from

delegats in Annam and Senegal. The lord of Lusignan brought the titul of the protector "Union Idealiste Universelle." the Lusignan family was always inclinded and closely tied with the Martinist movement.. Previous princes supported Martinez de

Pasqually as Claude de Saint-Martin.

BB:: work with the in collective work and support among the SI order and

bb masons of the primitive rite or Swedenborg, rite of Memphis and all

right rites of spritualism, which work now with all organizations of R+C in

Europe and in America.

BB:: that are on the other hand bb work on idealized French masonry that

publish the magazine, L'Accacia."

CoThe Congress of Spritists and spiritualists in 1900. After S::I::. R+C+C.

there are representatives, Papus, Sedir, Jollivet-Castelot, Ourdeck, Karl

Nyssa, S.U. Zanne. withe notes from the capable delagate, Apollonius.

Because in May at first will be worked the first place worked in lectures

of the Hermetic faculty in May. Later information will be distributed in

later editions. BB:: shall not forget the support of the peace movement; if any brothers wish to lecture sometime, they should write to the secretary Amis, who

makes the lecture calendar.


After Baron Leonardi brought Martinism to Bohemia in 1891(now Czechia ) and the first proper Lodge was established in Budejovice (Budvar) in 1894, lodges were established in Prague (1899), Brno, Olomouc (Olmutz), and Prerov. In 1924 a significant Martinist Lodge was founded by Jan Rebik, Lodge Simeon. This Lodge was run actually by the poet Emanuel of Lesehrad, and counted among its members the most significant Czech Hermetic, Petr Kohout, aka Pierre de Lasenic. With the support of Constant Chevillon, the Martinist Lodge "Paragava" was founded in 1938. Lasenic's death and the Nazi-occupation resulted in the demise of the Lodges. After Worl War II there were several attempts to renew the Martinist activities in Czechia. But due to the Communist take over these attempts failed. In 1975 a new attempt was made when I.Seguret (O*M* de Paris ) came to Prague to participate in the lodges reconstruction, but the Czechs had to wait a further ten years when there was finally a succesful attempt when "Lodge Lasenic" was founded ( Milan Nakonecny, writer of the book "Novodoby Hermetismus", published in 1992 ). Also of interest is the foundation of a "Society of Czech Hermeticists", named "Universalia" in 1920. "Universalia" was active between the two World Wars. The association was led by such men as J.S.Kminek, Jan Rebik and Dr.Jan Kefer, other prominent members were Pierre Lasenic and Frantisec Kabelak. In 1989 the association was revived, since 1998 the name is changed to "Univerzalia"…

( Most of the information on "Bohemia" is translated from original works in the Czech language by a "Hermeticist ", who's wish it is to stay 'anonymus' )

In 2001 Maurice Warnon of the "Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas" (O*M* of the Netherlands) announced the foundation of a Lodge in Czechia.


The first Martinist Lodges in Belgium were founded in 1892. Brussels' first and main lodge was Lodge 'KVMRIS'. The Lodge was led by Francis Vurgey and Nicolas Brossel, the latter being its President. Evidently the Lodge also represented the Belgian branch of Papus' G.I.D.E.E. ( "Independent Group of Esoteric Studies" ). According to Koenig, the G.I.D.E.E. (its Belgian branch included) carried a line of succession of Fabré-Palaprat's "Order of the Temple" (1). The Templar-lineage is confirmed by several sources. As a matter of fact, some state that the KVMRIS-Lodge was directly linked to Fabré-Palaprat's Templar Order. After Fabré-Palaprat's death in 1838, the neo-Templar Order slowly died out under the direction of a small group of French and Belgian noblemen. According to these sources, the Orthodox Templar order died out, but some sort of 'Primitive Christian Church' ("Johannites") that was attached to the neo-templars continued its activities in secret. At first the members of the "Order of the Temple" had professed the Roman Catholic religion, but in or about the year 1814, Fabré-Palaprat had obtained possession of a manuscript copy of a "spurious Gospel of St.John, which is supposed to have been forged in the 15th century". Fabré-Palaprat used the Gospel, together with an introduction and commentary called the "Levitkon" which was said to have been written by Nicephorus, to compose a liturgy. The Order established a religious rite which they called "Johannism", or "Johannite Church". Their church propagated the idea of an "alternative" Apolostic succession from John through the Grand Masters of the Templars. When the "Order of the Temple" was disbanded, the "Johannite Church" continued its activities and it is said that out of this church, which was led by French and Belgian noblemen, evolved a circle of men which would finally establish Lodge KVMRIS. The Gnostic elements which influenced the works of such lodge-members as Clement de Saint-Marcq were part of the doctrine of the Johannite church. Papus payed several visits to Brussels by reason of profession. On May 25, 1892 Papus was invited as a guest of the ULB university ( Université Libre de Bruxelles ) on a conference of Hypnosis. Three days earlier, on May 22, Papus visited Lodge KVMRIS. Together with the Lodge-members Papus payed a visit to the statue of Van Helmont in Brussels (Jan Baptista Van Helmont, 1580-1644 ; Alchemist * ). After his visit to the conference at the Université Libre de Bruxelles, Papus visited the Antwerp Lodge 'VISCVM', which was led by Rosport, on May 26. Papus returned on the same day to Brussels where he met the mayor of the city at the time, M.Buls.The Brussels Lodge 'KVMRIS' was very active in the last decade of the 19th century, until Verguy sended in his resignation to devote his time to personal research. Francis Verguy was also a member of Peladan's "ORDRE DE LA ROSE-CROIX CATHOLIQUE ET ESTHETIQUE DU TEMPLE ET DU GRAAL" and a friend of Emile Dantinne ('Sar Hieronymus'). At the time of the 'decline' of the Brussels Lodge, a new Lodge was established in Liége/Luik (near the Dutch- and German border in the east of Belgium) under the authority of Fievet. This was Lodge 'POLLUX'. Rosport, who led Lodge 'VISCVM', left Belgium and went to Congo (a Belgian colony at the time). Rosport died on Januari 10, 1895. One of the 'Secretaries' of Lodge 'KVMRIS' was Clément de Saint-Marcq (aka Georges Mickaël or Mikaël d'Ams). Clément de Saint-Marcq was also a member of Peladan's Order ( 'Ordre de la Rose-Croix Catholique du Temple et du Graal') and member of Doinel's Gnostic Church. Saint-Marcq was a 'chevalier' ('Knight') in Peladan's order. In 1906 Saint-Marcq's Gnostic text " L'Eucharistie" was published (2), a text which made a deep impression on Theodor Reuss. When Rosport left Lodge 'VISCVM' in Antwerp, Saint-Marcq became his successor. Meanwhile, Lodge 'KVMRIS' was disbanded. The Martinist movement in Belgium started to decline, soon many members would leave the order. Many of those who left joined the "Theosophical Society", with the exception of Fievet of Lodge 'POLLUX'. In 1912 a Armand Rombauts received a charter from Papus' order to establish a Martinist-Lodge in Belgium. Rombauts purpose was to immediately establish a 'Grand Loge Nationale de Belgique' with the significant name "I.N.R.I.". Finally, in 1918 after the war was finished, The Martinist Order of Belgium came under the responsibility of Rombauts. Rombauts would play a major role in the foundation of the F.U.D.O.S.I. in 1934. ('1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I.)

* Jan Baptista Van Helmond, a Flemish physician and Alchemist- follower of Paracelsus, was the first to postulate the existence of gases distinct from air. This brilliant Belgian scientist also showed that plants are composed only of water. His works were published posthumously in 1648 as Ortus Medicinae (his son).

At the time of the foundation of Palaprat's Templar Order, there were many speculations on the origin of the order. Palaprat was convinced that the order was a direct descendent of De Molay's original Templar order. In "History of Freemasonry" (1882-1887), R.F.Gould writes "It is immaterial whether the French 'Order of the Temple' is a revival of 'La Petite Resurrection desTempliers,' -- a licentious society established in 1682 -- or an offshoot of the lodge 'Les Chevaliers de la Croix,' 1806......" Many modern-day 20th century Templar-orders have a direct lineage to Palaprat's 'Order of the Temple' which was originally founded in 1804.

"L'Eucharistie" by 'Chevalier' Clément de Saint-Marcq , published in 1906. "The Eucharist' was considered by Theodor Reuss to contain the ultimate secret of the OTO, "the traditional practice of the sacred spermatophagia, glorified as being the sole method of seizing God, to unite with him, to live in a saintly perfection. God is the universal soul " (adapted from Saint-Marq). the complete text can be found at Peter Koenig's website at:

There exists another edition of the text, most probably the original version, the Pangenetor edition, dated Antwerp 1907 (this date is supported by a reference to the pamphlet by Reuss in his "Parsifal and the Unveiling of the Secret of the Graal"). The introduction of the Pangenetor edition is written by Jean Mallinger

"In May 1934, in a philosophical group which I was moderating at the time in Brussels, I officially invited a noteworthy visitor, a speaker of talent and a distinguished humanist. It was the Chevalier Clement de Saint-Marq, former Commander of the Place Forte d'Anvers (The Fortification of Antwerp) and director of an important spiritualist society. He forwarned us that the subject of his lecture was important, sensitive and most certainly controversial; it would give rise to an exchange between resolutely contradictory viewpoints. Such proved indeed to be the case, and each remained steadfast in his opinions.The text of his expose' was published in pamphlet form and we are publishing here below its complete development.It will evoke curiosity with all, anger with some and prudent approbation with others. Here it is. We shall speak of it again!"
Jean Mallinger, Esq.
Richard Jessel and Frater Y.V., Translation
Pangenetor Lodge Publications 1995
source : M.Evans/Malwgwyn



The Degrees and Rituals of the 'Ordre Martiniste' and the

Martinist Seal

In March 1891 the SUPRÉME CONSEIL DE L'ORDRE MARTINISTE was officially installed and a Martinist order under the name of "ORDRE DES SUPÉRIEURS INCONNUS" was founded.The Martinist Order presented itself as "Order of Christian- or Spiritual Knighthood ". The "ORDRE DES S.'. I.'. " consisted of three Degrees.

Whatever the truth is, there are no official documents or papers which proves the existence of a historical Martinist Order led by Louis Claude de Saint-Martin. All statements and 'proof' regarding the 'original' Martinist Order of Saint-Martin rested on the authority of Papus. Both Papus and Chaboseau claimed to be initiated as a Martinist. Papus by Delaage, and Chaboseau by de Boise-Mortmart.

Papus stated regarding his "initiation" that all that he ever received were some letters and some points. Papus evidently refers to the S.'.I.'. , of which he created the Martinist "Labarum " , a symbol comprised of the letters S and I, an equilateral Cross, and six dots (2*3 dots)


"a simple gift consisting of 2 letters and some dots, a summary of a doctrine of Initiation and the 'Trinity' which had illuminated all the works of Delaage"


"The opposition of the 2 Letters, and the opposition of the 2 Triangles reveal to every perspicacious eye, the 2 Columns in their active (letters) and their passive (points) opposition ; vertical and horizontal opposition ; the key of the symbolism of the Cross"

Papus speaks highly of his initiatior Delaage, who's, to say the least, not well known in the occult circles of today. Henri Delaage wrote a number of books of which "Doctrine des Sociétés Secrètes", published in 1852, is probably the most well-known. Papus exchanged initiations with Chaboseau, the reason being an uncertainty about one of the "initiated" in the lineage of Papus (it was unknown who initiated Henri Delaage). This statement was made by Chaboseau himself in an interview by Gerard van Rijnberk, published in his book on Martinez de Pasqually.

When we take a look at what Pierre-Augustin Chaboseau has to say about his Initiation into Martinism, it becomes clear that before the existence of the "Ordre Martiniste" as founded by Papus, the followers of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin did not make use of an elaborate Initiation-ritual, as a matter of fact, there (probably) existed no such thing as a written ritual including instructions etc. at all. Chaboseau on his initiation by his aunt, Amélie de Boise-Mortmart ;

The Initiation consisted of an "oral transmission of a particular teaching and a certain comprehension of the laws of the Universe and of Spiritual life, which, in no case could be regarded as an Initiation in a ritualistic form"

(Jean Chaboseau in "L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie", ed. 2000)

Chaboseau is very clear in his statement when he says that the 'initiation' "in no case could be regarded as an Initiation in a ritualistic form". Furthermore, Chaboseau stated that most of the oral teachings he (and Papus) received were written down in a notebook. These teachings became the basis of the Associate-degree (1st degree) of the O*M* (and, according to Elias Ibrahim, in the original French T*M*O*, Ordre Martiniste Traditionelle, which was led by Chaboseau until his death in 1946). By the way, Jean Chaboseau (son of A.Chaboseau..) apparently stated, after the Supreme Council voted against Jean Chaboseau's nomination as Grand Master of the Ordre Martiniste Traditionnel in 1946, that his father's filiation through Amélie of Boisse-Mortemart did never exist !!! source: website "Les Maitres Passes"

-'Groupements ou Ordres' at

Outside the Martinist order(s), Papus' Ordre Martiniste is often looked upon as an independent established organization, and not a continuation of the original Société des Intimes" (Society of Friends), followers of Saint-Martin, and/or De Pasqually's "Elus Cohen". With regard to "Martinezism" even most of the Martinist Orders do not claim any filial authenticity. Famous French Martinist Robert Amadou stated in his publication "Documents Martinistes" :

"Nobody, to our knowledge, holds today the Cohen succession, neither within any Order, nor in an individual way". One could add to Amadou's statement that there is a "historical" connection between the ELUS COHEN and the R.E.R. of today ("Régime Écossais Rectifié" or "Rectified Scottish System").

"Because of the underlying Elu Kohen = Martinist theory derived from DE PASQUALLY, the R.É.R. has always been considered as ‘the other side of the Martinist mountain’, despite of its modern masonic warrants (from Switzerland)".

Marc Jones "What is B.B.C.S.? What is R.E.R."

We know that Louis-Claude de Saint-Martin did not confer any degrees or made use of any system. He (probably) used a form of initiation which is known as 'personal

Initiation'. Saint-Martin employed the biblical "laying on of hands" upon the initiate.

"The only initiation which I preach and seek with all the ardour of

my soul is that by which we may enter into the heart of God and make God's

heart enter into us, there to form an indissoluble marriage, which will

make us the friend, brother, and spouse of our Divine Redeemer. There is no

other mystery to arrive at this holy initiation than to go more and more

down into the depths of our being, and not let go until we can bring forth

the living, vivifying root, because then all the fruit which we ought to

bear, according to our kind, will be produced within us and without us

naturally". LC de Saint-Martin

The actual 'Initiation' did not employ any kind of ritual or 'form'. It is generally believed that Saint-Martin performed a simple personal initiation upon his disciples, nothing elaborate. In Martinism this process is referred to as "transmission". But this is something we presume, because there's no documental proof available "that anything of this kind transpired, neither from the pen of Saint-Martin nor from any of his admireres, who numbered in the thousands throughout Europe" ("Martinist Initiation" by Sar Ignatius). Supposedly, Saint-Martin's initiation conferred the quality of "Unknown Superior", S.'.I. However, as mentioned earlier, both Papus and Chaboseau stated that Louis Claude de Saint-Martin had intended to establish a rite of seven degrees in 1780 (see"1891- Ordre des Supérieur Inconnus"). Again, the claim rests solely on the authority of both Papus and Chaboseau. When the Martinist Order was 'officially' established in 1891, the "Ordre des S.'.I.'." was comprised of three Degrees. There's some confusion about the actual "1891- title" of the third Degree concerned. In general, the sources will present the following names of the degrees ;




A.E. Waite's "Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" * presents the following degrees, in English ;




* At the time of publication, at the beginning of the 20th century, Waite's "Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry" was sabled down by the Masonic scholars for its 'inaccuraties', amongst others. A.E. Waite was a member of the "Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn" and later founded his own ( Christian-Kabbalastic) version of it, the "Fellowship of the Rosy Cross". In 1902 he joined Freemasonry. Waite wrote numerous books on Hermetic subjects and is considered doubtful as a researcher by many of his 'colleagues'...

Another source is Edouard Blitz' "Ritual and Monitor of the Martinist Order" of 1896. This publication was 'officially' recommended "to the favor of the Brethren of the Martinist Institution wherever dispersed" by the President and Secretary of the Supreme Council of 1894 in Paris, Dr.Papus and Jacques Burg. Therefore it's a valuable and reliable historical referencebook concerning the Martinist rituals, symbolism, and doctrines as used (probably) by the O*M* at the time. Blitz speaks of a Martinist system of Degrees which through its history has been reduced into "three essential" and "four accessory Degrees of application". In his "Tableau of the transformations of the Martinist Rite", Blitz refers to three Rites which preceded the "Martinist Order- Modern Rite", as Blitz calls the O*M*. These rites were The Elus Cohen of Pasqually (1750), the Rectified Rite of Saint-Martin (1767) and the Refor'd Ecossism of Saint-Martin, as practised in Germany in 1782, thus Blitz.

Blitz' 3 'essential' Degrees are (as worked in France in 1887) ;

ASSOCIATE (Philosophic)


S:::I::: (Kabbalistic)

S:::I::: (Administrative)

As one notices, Blitz also mentions the "Administrative-Degree" (S:::I::: -Administrative), as a side-degree. This was given to S.I.-members, who were willing to help their Lodge on a 'administrative-level'. The mentioning of the "S.I. Aministrative Degree" undermines (at least on paper) the general assumption within the 'Martinist-movement' that the 'Administrative-Degree' did not exist at the time of Papus ; "1975 12 20, the administrative rank of S.I.G.I is removed, since it was not existing at the time of Papus" ( 'Probationary Degree- text of instruction' 24 pages, addressed to the M*O* of Chile by the President of the M*O* of Paris).

The first three degrees belonged to the "First Temple". Blitz also refers to Degrees belonging to the "Second Temple". This 'proves' that there already existed (again, at least on paper) Higher Degrees within the "Ordre Martiniste", before the foundation of the Supreme Council of the O.'.M.'. These "accessory Degrees of application" were ;

Vth Degree

VIth Degree

VIIth Degree

Blitz does not 'name' them, he just refers to these grades as being the fifth, sixth, and seventh Degree. Could these degrees refer to the grades of the "Fraternité Hermétique de Louxor", the H.B.of L. , as was Papus' original intention ? This is, of course, just a speculation. It also could be a referrence to the "Elus-Cohen" degrees, who knows (Blitz was, after all, the successor of the E.C. for America).

The 'Martinist system of -essential- degrees', as worked within the "Ordre Martiniste", is in fact one 'Initiation' divided into three parts. As mentioned before, Saint-Martin only 'spoke' about one initiation, the 'Supérieur Inconnu' .The first two degrees are a 'preparation' for the third Degree, the S.I. -Degree. According to Papus, "there is only one Degree, that of S.I." The aim of the Martinist was (and is) to awaken the Conscience and finally achieving interior harmony. The method used within the 3 degrees of the O*M*, as mentioned before, was (and is) known as "The Way of the Heart". More on this method can be found at :

"Way of the Heart" , a discourse on the Martinist-Philosophic Method written by Papus.

After receiving the S.I. Degree the Martinist was empowered to found a group. He/She was pledged solely to conceal the name of his/her Initiator.

Another interesting historical document regarding the Martinist Degrees at the time of Papus is the so-called "PROTOCOL OF THE UNION OF MARTINIST ORDERS ", a document dated Sunday, the 28th day of October, 1962. The protocol announced the union of Philippe Encausse's "O.M" (Ordre Martiniste) and Robert Ambelain's "Ordre Martiniste des Elus-Cohens" and was officially signed by the two Grand Masters, Encausse Jr. and Ambelain. Of particular interest is the refference in the document to a certain volume of the official Martinist review L’Initiation, dated 1911. Apparently, the review published the "General Rules and Regulations of the Respected Lodge Melchisedech No. 208". Melchisedech No.208 was the name of a Martinist Lodge in Paris at the time, "under the direct dependence of Papus" . Among the high officers were, next to papus, men like " Teder, Targelius (Victor Blanchard), and Librarius (Ernest Loiselle)", which conferred "upon all the acts and decisions of this particular Lodge an official and incontestable character". Apparently, this Lodge conferred also higher Degrees. These degrees were connected with practical Kabbalism, Christian Gnosis, as well as to Spiritualist Masonry (Memphis-Misraim).

Lodge Melchisedech conferred the following Degrees (1911):

- The "classical" Philosophic degrees of Martinism



Unknown Superior

Free Adept

The 4th grade, "Free Adept", corresponds with the modern grade of "Free Initiator ", otherwise known as S.I.I. or S.I. IV. It seems likely to presume that the ordinary S.I. was not empowered any longer to found a group on his/her own at the time …

Lodge "Melchisedech No.208" would later (around 1911) become "Grand Lodge No.322". The degrees of the OKR+C (Ordre Kabbalistique de la Rose+Croix), "Bachelor", "Master" and "Doctor" of Kabbala, were reserved only for the high degrees of the Masonic Rite of Memphis-Mizraim (above the 33rd Degree). The 'system of Degrees' of the O*M*, as practised at Lodge Melchisedech No.208 in 1911, proved to be an elaborate- and intricate system (and pompous) including Higher Degrees " of an infinitely more Occult character than those usually known". The M.M. Degrees beneath the 33rd Degree (equal to the Scottish Rite), "Secret Master" (4th), "Grand Pontiff" or "Sublime Scottish" (19th) and "Sovereign Grand Inspector General" (33rd), were equivalent to the Martinist degrees of "Initiate", "Unknown Superior" and "Free Adept". The document regarding Teder's Martinist Ritual of 1913 also refers to several Elus Cohen Degrees which were equivalent to the Martinist Degrees Initiate and S.I. The complete text of the document concerned can be found at:

or at:


Mike Restivo (Sar Ignatius, Initiatèur Libre)

The Martinist Order is organized, in general, on the Lodge-system (the actual word "Lodge" can be traced back to the days of the guilds in medieval Europe). This 'system' is derived from Freemasonry, as we all know. As Sar Ignatius from the Rose+Croix Martinist Order of Canada explains ;

"After having been found sincere and desirous of study of the principles of the Order, a candidate successively progresses through three Degrees or Grades: Associate, then Initiate, then Unknown Superior. The education is given in person during meetings called Conventicles. A simple ritual of opening and closing the group called a Heptad (7 members minimum) or a Lodge (21 members minimum) is employed. Smaller groups called Circles with a very simplified opening and closing ceremony, permit less than the minimum to study the Martinist principles"

and ; "The Lodge system provides a psychological environment to encourage the perception and appreciation of higher spiritual principles", thus Sar Ignatius in his article "Martinist Initiation"

the complete text can be found at ;

this system was also applied during the reign of Papus.

' The government of the Order is vested in three bodies, named respectively, in the order of their rank, Supreme Council, Grand Council, and Lodge'

' The authority of the Supreme Council, residing in Paris, France, is absolute'

Source; Edouard Blitz 1896.

The M*O* did not pretend to have some sort of secret teachings at its disposal. It's doctrine was based on the works Saint-Martin, Martinez de Pasqually, Boehme, and all the theosophers, occultists and mystics who were inspired by them. It taught 'all matters considered useful to its purpose, in particular the doctrine of the universal Reintegration'.

The Martinist Rituals

Many sources state that at the beginning of Papus' O*M* the rituals existed in outline only, "as certain heads of procedure, and each initiator had the duty of amplifying them according to his/her best lights", as one source states. As mentioned before, Chaboseau himself stated that the initiation he had received in 1886 "in no case could be regarded as an Initiation in a ritualistic form". It is generally assumed that the followers of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin did not make use of an elaborate Initiation-ritual. This is in contradiction to the assumption of Papus, Blitz etc. that there existed a Martinist Order of Saint-Martin of 7 Degrees in the 18th century (Blitz speaks about 7 degrees belonging to the 'First Temple' and another 3 degrees belonging to a 'Second Temple' ), but, as stated a couple of times before, there exists no historical proof for their claims. A.E. Waite states that "Between 1887 and 1890 he (Papus) produced Rituals for the Order, arranged in three Degrees, which I have praised on several occasions for their sincerity, simplicity and reserve in respect of claims". Somewhere else in the same text Waite states that "the mode adopted (initiation) was usually that which is known technically as "communication," that is to say, personally and not in Lodge or Temple. To my certain knowledge reception was arranged even by post".


by Arthur Edward Waite.

Another source, a Martinist Manual called "Administrative and technical information for Lodge Officers" from ICES provides the following information on the 'original' rituals, as used by Papus in the 1890's. The actual text stems from Clive Culbertson S.I. from Ulster and can be found on his website at:

" Martinism grew and spread under the guidance of Papus. He added two degrees before the superior degree to serve as chambers of instruction and probation. The first degree, that of associate is said to come from Cagliostro's Egyptian Masonic Rite and the second degree, that of Mystic, from Willermoz's Knights Beneficent of the Holy City (C.B.C.S)".

In a private correspondence on the source of his information regarding the original rituals Clive stated :

"When we started our Heptad here in 91 (I think) I got the manual "Administrative and technical information for Lodge Officers" from ICES now ICOMS* in Barbados.The info was in a question and answer thing in there.The 3rd initiation came from the Order of Unknown Philosophers and was divided into 2 parts, half given at S.I. and the other half at P.I..As I understand it, the Order of Unknown Philosopher's initiation is the actual initiation that the Martinist Order was created to perpetuate and is it's raison d'etre".

ICOMS (or ICOM) stands for "International College of Martinist Studies" . The college (it's not an Order!) changed its name in course of time to ICES / "International College of Esoteric Studies" , for more information, take a look at their website at:

The oldest document I've seen (until this day) with regard to the Martinist system of degrees and rituals is Blitz' "Ritual & Monitor of the Martinist Order", which was published especially for the "English speaking community" for the first time in 1896. The recommendation written by Papus at the beginning of the book is dated December 1894.

The book is a manual for the functioning of a Martinist Lodge including a complete outline of the rituals, the symbols which are used and their meanings, the regulations of a set-up of a Martinist temple etc. The rough outline of the rituals are similar to the ones I've received (late 20th century) as a member of the Ordre Martiniste des Pays-Bas . The major difference between the 1894 "versions" and the ones a Martinist will receive today is the extensiveness of the rituals from 1894. Here's an excerpt from the 1894 'Initiation-Ritual' of the first Degree, the 'Associate' degree, in which the 'dramatic feel' to impress the candidate is illustrated ;

UNKNOWN BROTHER : "The Sun arises! As the shadows of the night vanish, so let the veils that hide the Divine truth be torn away!

UNKNOWN PHIL.: (strikes 3 knocks slowly)

UNKNOWN BROTHER: (strikes 3 knocks slowly)

BRO.INITIATE: (strikes one knock)

The above dialogue is so timed that the Candidate begins the 6th tour when 7 knocks have been sounded. Arriving at the station of Bro. Associate, the procession halts, and Bro.Associate, plunging the right arm of the Candidate into a box filled with sand, says:

" In the beginning God created the Heaven and the Earth, and the Earth was without Form and Void".

Another interesting source is Kjetil Fjell from the O.T.O. -researchgroup "Academia Masonica Borealis" in Norway. In his article called "Rites mentioned in Liber 52" Kjetil tells us that the Martinist rituals were originally developed by Stanislas De Guaita.

"The rituals originally developed by Guaita focused on a Symbology of Light in which the number three played an important role. In the first Grade, which was called La Affiliè, the candidate was led into a room in which three pillars with different colours were placed. Between these pillars a huge candle was handed over. This Triad, in connection with the number four (quatarnary) would in the Second Grade (La Initiè), as well as in the Third Grade (la Initiateur), be further harmonically developed. The Candidate would in these Grades learn more about The Fall and the strengthening of humanity ,as in the teachings of Pasqually and Saint-Martin. In the highest Degree (The Third), followed the -- -fusioning- between the Created and the Creator, as well as the Unio Mystica of the elder Gnostics and Alchemists. The Initiate also saw the masked men who silently pointed their swords at his chest. They wore an old Egyptian headdress. The candidate had to sit down on a chair placed before a white draped altar. On the altar was placed burning candles. In front of the altar lay three carpets on which a Sphinx, Mask and a dagger was embedded".

A.M.B. Kjetil Fjell "Rites mentioned in Liber 52"

When I compared Kjetil's information with Blitz' "Ritual & Monitor of the M.O" I've found several similarities between the two sources. For instance when Kjetil states " The Candidate would in these Grades learn more about The Fall and the strenghtening of humanity, as in the teachings of Pasqual and Saint-Martin" , One finds this doctrine throughout the whole story-line of the Initiation into the first degree as used by Edouard Blitz. Kjell also refers to " the masked men who silently pointed their swords at his (candidate) chest". In Blitz' "Ritual & Monitor" we read on page 32 :

"Here the blindfold of the Candidate is raised and he beholds him, amidst red and green flames, the Brothers threatening him with their swords, some of them wearing hideous masks (not grotesque); all seem ready to take the life of the Candidate …"

"INITIATION -First Degree. Associate" 1896

I've found no traces of the (physical) three pillars in the "Blitz-versions" in the first Degree, although they were 'present' , symbolized by the three Cressets in Blitz' version ;

"In fine, the three Cressets, true flambeaux of universal knowledge, symbolize also the three great Pillars of Kabbalah upon which rests the Universe, intellectual and physical: Beauty, Strength, and Wisdom"

"INITIATION -First Degree. Associate" 1896, "DISCOURSE OF THE ORATOR" (Symbolism)

The Pillars are mentioned in the S.I. Initiation Degree in the manual, were the two Columns are placed on the platform situated in the Martinist temple. The Lodge-room was divided in three apartments in the 2nd and 3th Degree of Initiation. In the 2nd Degree the first apartment was lighted, the other two were darkened. In the 3rd degree the third apartment was darkened, the other two lightened …

As stated earlier, Papus apparently added two degrees before the superior degree to serve as chambers of instruction and probation. The "Ordre Martiniste" aka "Ordre Martinist de Paris" provides the following information on the 'value' of the degrees (freely transl. from French);

"The first Initiation which the O.M. transnmits initially connects the elect member temporarily with the Martinist chain. The first degree is a probational-degree. The second Initiation is an initiation into a preparatory degree and the third connects a Brother or Sister finally to the Martinist égrégore and the Martinist chain"

The main symbols used in the Martinist rituals and workings are the Mask (symbol of Silence and Secrecy), Mantle (color -black, symbol of Prudence), and the Universal Pentacle. The main focus is placed on the symbolic Trinitarian structure with its ' three points of Light' (as in many of the occult and mystic organizations). The three Cressets symbolize i.a. the three 'pillars' and they also stand for 'God', 'man', and 'Nature'. The colors black, white and red ( the colors used in Martinist symbolism) are refering to the classical Alchemical stages Purification, Illumination and Union." When Papus and Novikov contributed to the rituals of Martinism, they were trying to express the process of illumination indirectly through the alchemical symbolism of black, white and red.This refers to the classical stages of Purification, Illumination and Union ( Elias Ibrahim ).

In the teachings of Martinez de Pasqually the three colors black, white and red, refer to the symbols of Matter in which the original Adam was clothed after his "Fall" ( source; Rituel de l'Apprenti Cohen ", Thory). According to several French authorities on Martinism the use of the number three as a key-symbol was copied from masonry by those who established the Martinist Rite. The number three as a symbol in the Martinist rite is a christianized version of its masonic source, reflecting the Christian Holy Trinity. According to these French researchers the creators of the Martinist rituals were not well acquainted with the original teachings of De Pasqually and Saint-Martin, because the "Luminaries" of the original Elus Cohen teachings were at least four, "a Perfect divine number, the three numbers of Matter being 3, 6, and 9".

The rituals (as stated) are strongly influenced by Masonry, especially Templarism. The influences from Templarism can be traced back to Baron Karl Gotthelf von Hund's (1722-1766) STRIKTE OBSERVANCE (La Stricte Observance Templière) through Willermoz' C.B.C.S. (see "short profile on J.B.Willermoz" ).

The Martinist Order accepts (obviously) a "creation-principle", which is symbolized by the Masonic abbreviation A.'.L.'.G.'.D.'.G.'.A.'.D.'.L..'.U.'. which stands for "A la Gloire du Grand Architect de L’Univers".

The definitive Rituals* of the "Ordre Martiniste" were written by Téder in 1913, and according to some sources Téder's version was based on the hand-written rituals of François-Charles Barlet (Sar Anael, G.M. of the Spanish Martinist Order, founded in 1987. The Spanish Order uses the Téder-version of 1913). Other sources (like R.A. in his/her L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ed. 2000) state that Téder used the rituals from Blitz (written in, or around, 1901)), which seems to correspond with the actual truth. Copies of both rituals are almost identical. Some Martinists claim that Téder's rituals were published openly in order to make it impossible for those outside of the Order, to accuse the Martinists of Satanic work or Black magic. Allegedly, Téder's rituals were never actually worked.
From 1913 on the order worked with four degrees which were named Associé, Associé Initié, Superieur Inconnu, and Superieur Inconnu Initiateur. The rituals were published by Dorbon-Aîné, and are obtainable from a specialized book-shop.

source; Marcel Roggemans (from a correspondence with Sar Anael from the Spanish OM*)

According to Philippe Telauges (from the "Fratres Lucis" in South-America) it was Démétrius Platon Sémélas (dignitary of the O*M* in Egypt 1911-1914, co-founder of the "L'Ordre du Lys et de L'Aigle" in 1914, founder of the "Rose-Croix d'Orient"), who's responsible for the written rituals (or, at least, parts of the rituals concerned) of the 2nd and 3rd degree which Sémélas transmitted to Papus, and later, to Chaboseau. Telauges also claims that it was Démétrius (Dimitri) Sémélas who prepared and apparently wrote the S:::IV::: Degree. Also, the original rituals of the O*M*T of Chaboseau were strongly influenced by the work (rituals and writings) of this initiate. Telauges mentions the following sources of his claims:

a volume of the journal "L'Esprit des choses" (date not mentioned) in which the 'authentic' ritual of the "Initiatèur Libre" (Free Initiator) was published, but it appears that the name of Sémélas was not mentioned in the publication.

A volume of "L'Initiation" in which a transcribed version of the S:::IV::: ritual was published…

Sémélas' wriiten rituals were allegedly officially aproved by Papus in May 1912. According to a text provided by the French O.M.T./T.M.O. , the rituals of Démétrius P. Sémélas were later adopted by the 'Ordre Martiniste et Synarchique' of Victor Blanchard.


Téder’s Rituel de l’Ordre Martiniste 1913



The Seal of the O*M* is the the symbol of the Universal Pentacle, the Hexagram in a Circle, together with the equilateral Cross and the Hexagon. According to the O*M* it was designed by Saint-Martin as an explanation of the Universe. Here's what Blitz' manual has to say on its symbolism ;

Taken from "Ritual & Monitor of the O:::M::: " , 1896

" God, the First Principle of the Universe, is represented by a Circle, Symbol of Eternity".

"The action of Eternity, passing from latent power into Action, is symbolized by the mystic relation of the center to the circumference; by the radius projected six times around the Circle, which produces the Hexagon, emblemetical of the Six Periods of Creation".

"The central point forms the Seventh Period, that of Rest". (The Center has attracted the upper triangle and the lower triangle, both of which, reacting on one another, have manifested Life -L.C. de Saint-Martin from his book "on Numbers")

"Let us remark that Nature, the Seal of Solomon (represented by the two triangles- one Ascending, One Descending, the currents of Involution and Evolution), does not reach God, but only the Creative Forces emanating from Him. From the center of the Universe to God Himself (Circle) the power of Man originates, uniting the effects of Divinity to the fatalism of Nature in the Unity of his Free Will, symbolized by the Cross, uniting the center of the Universe (Human Soul) to God Himself. This is the explanation of the most complete synthetic figure the genius of Man ever discovered. It explains all the mysteries of Nature, and is true as well in physics as in metaphysics; in natural sciences as in theology; it is the seal that unites Reason and Faith, Materialism and Spiritualism, Religion and Science" DISCOURSE OF THE ORATOR, 3TH DEGREE

The following explanation is taken from Saint-Martin's book "on Numbers" ;

"The natural Circle has shaped itself in a different way from the geometrical circle. The center has attracted the upper triangle and the lower triangle, both of which, reacting on one another, have manifested Life.

It is then that the quadruple Man appeared. It would be impossible to find this quadruple priciple in the circle without tracing lost or superfluous lines, if we are limiting ourselves to the methods of mathematics.

Nature looses nothing: it coordinates all parts of its works, the one with the other. So, in the Circle regularly drawn by Nature, we can see the two triangles, uniting to determine the emancipation of Man in the Universe and Man's place in relation to the divine center.

We can see [in the symbol of the Pantacle] that the Light receives Life only by the reflections surging from the opposition that the True receives from the False; that the Light receives it from the Darkness; and that Life, in matter, always depends upon both actions. We see that the fourfold Man embrases the six directions of the Universe, and that those [six] regions, being bound two by two [in the triangles], the power of Man operates within a triple fourfold in the location of his glory.

Here are manifested the laws of this superb knowledge, of which the Chineese have left us some traces, I mean the knowledge of the keou-kou. Man, by giving in to guilty incitations, has left the divine center, where he was originally placed; but even though he has left it, the center is still at its place, as it cannot be moved by any force at all. (Sedes tua in seculum seculi. Ps. 14:7)

So, since Man has left his glorious post, it is the Divinity that is ready to replace him and to operate for him, in the universe, that same Power of which he has been dispossessed by his mistake. But when the Divinity takes the place of Man, it is dressed in the same colors, and is attached to the material regions, where Man was originally established, as it is impossible to appear at the center of this circle without being placed at the midst of all those regions.

Here is what the study of the natural circle can reveal to the intelligent eye. The figure represented, although imperfect, can indicate the way.




with Seal

as used by the Martinist Order(s)* around the world





~ Après Papus le Martinisme est Mort ~

François Jollivet-Castelot (1874 -1937 )

Essai de Synthèse des Sciences Occultes


The O*M* after 1916

The "original" order ended with the death of Gérard Encausse ( Papus ) in 1916. As mentioned earlier in this text Papus even seem to have wished that Ernest Loiselle would disband the Martinist Order ! ( source, R.A. in "l'Encyclopédie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ED. 2000" ). Papus had appointed Loiselle as his moral legatee and as his successor as the head of the Martinist Order. Papus allegedly wanted to dissolve the original Martinist Order and replace it with a complete new organization. This Order would have thus taken the place of Martinism. The new Order, which would be "a center of dissemination of High Esoteric Doctrines", would have carried the name of ‘Ordre Universel de la Nouvelle Egypte’, O.U.N.E.: ,

Whatever the truth is, Charles Détré (Téder) suceeded Papus as Grand Master of the O*M*. From 1916 on the 'original' Martinist Order, as founded by Papus and Chaboseau, would split up in several branches due to disagreements, disputes over 'authorization' etc., between the members of the original Supreme Coucil of 1891 (between those original members who were still members of the Supreme Council in 1916, of course). When Téder wanted to initiate only masons into the O*M*, many members protested against his intentions.

Téder died in 1918 (September 26), just two years after Papus' death (October 25, 1916). Generally it is stated that there were two men who actually could be considered as the successor of Téder as G.M of the M*O*, Victor Blanchard and Jean Bricaud. Blanchard was Téder's deputy. The whole story of Téder's succession can be found in the "1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I." -series, in "Addendum 6 -Victor Blanchard". The series is published on the internet at :

most of the information is derived from an article by Elias Ibrahim, "Victor Blanchard - a brief Summary of his Life and his Work" , taken from the website of the "Ancient Martinist Order" at :

"in the absence of well established rules regarding the nomination or succession of a Grand Master, it is impossible to say wether Bricaud or Blanchard was the legitimate Grand Master". Whatever the truth is, history tells us that Jean Bricaud became the successor of Téder as Grand Master of the Martinist Order in 1918. When Charles Barlet was asked by one of his pupils who the true successor of Téder was, he answered him that Martinism was"a circle whose circumference was everywhere and the center nowhere ". Robert Ambelain, "Le Martinisme" page 150. With Jean Bricaud acting as Grand Master of the M*O* the unity of the order really bursted …

"Bricaud (born in 1881) already held a high position within the O*M* at the end of the first decade of the 20th century. In 1907 Bricaud, with the help of Papus and other Martinists, broke with the L’ Eglise Gnostique Universelle Catholique and founded, together with Papus and Fugairon, the L’Eglise Catholique Gnostique’ (see "1890 -Ecclessia Gnostica .."). In 1908 the church changed its name to the L’Eglise Gnostique Universelle’ , and in 1911 the L’Eglise Gnostique Universelle’ became the 'official church' of the Martinist Order. Bricaud was also initiated into the Memphis-Misraim rite and he was a disciple, like most of the leading Martinists at the time, of Master Philippe. He studied the rites of Willermoz and Pernety, the Elus Cohen, Stricte Observance, les Philalèthes, and les Philadelphes. In 1911 he helped Téder and Edouard Blitz (1) in developing "new ideas" with relation to the recruitment of members. In 1914 Bricaud established a 'Martinist movement' based on the ideas of 1911. These ideas were based on the rules of Willermoz and his successor, Antoine Pont (Blitz was Pont's successor in the U.S.A., Téder and Fugairon were the successors in France), which were the rules of the C.B.C.S., 'Chevaliers Bienfaisants de la Cité Sainte', which included the rites of the Elus Cohen. In 1914 Téder appointed Bricaud Légat of the Order for the provence of Lyon (Bricaud lived in Lyon). At the time (1914) Bricaud was Grand Master of the Memphis-Misraim Rite, Vice-Chancellor of the Ordre Martiniste Rose Croix (?), Patriarch of the église Gnostique Universelle, and président of the S.O.I., Société Occultiste Internationale" (see "1916 L’Ordre Martiniste de Lyon) source ; articles from L'INITIATION 1952 up to 1958

Although Blitz had left the Martinist Order as Grand Master of the U.S.A., after which he'd founded his own (masonic) Martinist-rite in 1902 (see "the M.O. abroad- America"), he obviously did not sever all his ties with France ! Blitz apparently corresponded with men like Téder and Bricaud, even after his 'withdrawal' from Papus' M*O*. On the other hand this seems quite plausible. Téder and Blitz were both the heirs to Willermoz' legacy, and they both propagated a masonic requirement with regard to membership into the Martinist order. Another interesting subject for discussion is R.A. 's remark in his book "L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ed. 2000", where he states that Téder had adapted Blitz' rituals (see "Ordre des S.I." and "Martinist Rituals…") before succeeding Papus as Grand Master of the O*M*. As a matter of fact, it is stated that Papus attributed the rituals he'd received from Blitz in 1901, to Téder in 1912.

Martinist Lines of Succession

From 1918 onwards newly founded Martinist Orders appeared on the international esoteric scene. These organizations can be traced back through its line of Succession. Already in the beginning of the 20th century there existed at least 5 different lines of succession.

The first Line was the lineof Papus and Chaboseau which resulted in the O*M* of 1891 (year in which the first Martinist Supreme Council was installed). The second Line was a line of Succession which we will call the "Russian Lineage" .

The first Line (Papus, Chaboseau) had three different branches :

Téder ( Charles Henri Détré )

Victor Blanchard

Augustin Chaboseau

These three branches originated after Papus' death in 1916. Each branch had its lineage from which orders were formed. Today all these different Martinist lineages recognize each other and all the different martinist organizations maintain a close relationship with each other (except for the T.M.O, the "Traditional Martinist Order" of A.M.O.R.C., which does not recognize other Martinist orders ).

There were several other Lines of succession, which resulted in new orders. To name a few - the Line of Edouard Blitz, and the Line of Arnoldo Krumm-Heller (who initiated many Martinists in South-America at the beginning of the 20th century). Of course there are other (even older) "lineages" existing, like for instance the "Italian Line" of Kremmerz, but it's almost impossible to name them all (just think of all the so-called "free-Martinists", who initiated new members into Martinism outside of any organization).

Later on in the 20th century another lineage originated from Philippe Encausse, Papus' son. The big picture of the Martinist Lines of succession is a complex structure of several different lineages, which sometimes are entwined with each other.

But the most 'important' (originating in Papus' M*O*) "Lines of succession" are ;

Gérard Encausse ( Papus ), Charles Détré, Lucien Chamuel ( Mauchel ), Victor Blanchard ( Sar Yésir ) ( Targelius ), Augustin Chaboseau, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze, Robert Ambelain ( 1907 - 1997 ), Gerard Kloppel and Ronald Capello ( USA )

Gérard Encausse ( Papus ), Charles Henri Détré (Téder )( 1855 - 1918 ), Jean Bricaud 1881 - 1934 ), Constant Chevillon (1880 - 1944 ), Charles-Henry Dupont (1877 - 1961 ), Philippe Encausse (1906 - 1984 ), d’Irénée Séguret ( 1903 - 1992), Philippe Encausse, Emilio Lorenzo ( from1979 ). Papus was GM from 1888 untill 1916, Charles Henri Détré ( Téder ) was GM from 1916 untill 1918, Jean Bricaud was GM from 1918 untill 1934, Constant Chevillon was GM from 1934 untill 1944, Charles-Henry Dupont was GM from 1944 untill 1958.

Gérard Encausse ( Papus ), Charles Détré, Lucien Chamuel ( Mauchel ), Victor Blanchard ( Sar Yésir ) ( Targelius ), Augustin Chaboseau, Georges Bogé de Lagrèze, Harvey Spencer Lewis, Ralph M.Lewis, Orval Graves and Cecile A. Poole, Gary Lee Stewart, Christian Bernard. (the lineage of AMORC's T.M.O. and Gary Lee Stewart's B.M.O.

The successors of the T.M.O. were Victor Emile Michelet, Augustin Chaboseau ( Sar Augustus ), Ralp Maxwell Lewis ( Sar Validivar ), Gary Lee Stewart and Christian Bernard ( Sar Phenix ).- The "Russian Line" ; they are dealt with in a separate part of this text … Several members of the original Supreme Council of Papus' Martinist Order would leave the M*O* and soon would found their own version of the Martinist Order. These members were 'authorized' to found new Orders, because they had received the S.I. Initiateur , the 4th degree. Others belonged to the founding members, in the beginning of Papus' M*O* every member who had received the initiation of the 3th Degree (S.I.) was 'authorized' to initiate new members into Martinism …


L’Ordre des Chevaliers Maçons Elus Cohens de l’Univers

This Seal was used by the reconstituted E.C. of 1943. It was taken from the original Masonic Patent granted to Pasqually’s father ….

"The Order, in its whole, is above all a school of moral
chivalry, trying hard to develop spirituality in its members by the
study of the invisible world and its laws, by the exercise of
devotion and of intellectual assistance, and by the creation in each
spirit of a faith, all the more solid because it is based on
observation and science. Martinism derives directly from Christian
Illuminism and has adopted its principles. - Forming the real centre
of this living University, that will one day recreate the marriage
without division of Science and Faith, without epithet, Martinism
tries to be worthy of this name by establishing superior schools of
metaphysical and physiological science, disdainfully moved away from classical teachings under the pretext that it is occult. - Our epoch of scepticism, of adoration of the material world and of atheism, needed so badly a frank Christian reaction, independent of all clergies, that in all the countries where it has penetrated,
Martinism has saved many souls from doubt, despair and suicide. It
brought back to the comprehension of Christ many spirits that certain clerical actions had moved away from Faith. - Not asking from its members any contribution, nor entrance fees into the Order, neither asking any regular tribute from the Lodges to the Supreme Council, Martinism has remained faithful to its spirit and origins by making material poverty its very first rule. - Martinists want to be Christians, free from any clerical connection, and the accusations of "Satanism" will just make them shrug their shoulders, while asking Heaven for mercy for those who slandered them unfairly. - Martinists do not practise any magic, be it white or black. They study, they pray and they forgive injustices. - Martinism does not ask its members for any oaths of passive obedience, nor does it impose on them any dogma, be it materialistic or clerical, thus leaving them in a perfect freedom of consciousness. - ... We simply remain fervent Knights of Christ, enemies of violence and vengeance, resolute synarchists, opposed to any anarchy from above or below, in one word, Martinists, as have been our glorious ancestors Martines de Pasqually, Claude de Saint-Martin and Willermoz!"


The essential freedom of the initiate to pursue his own path of re-integration The Martinist Order has had, since its earliest days, a syllabus of instruction and certain fundamental symbols. Aside from these, each Initiator or Group President has been free to instruct according to his understanding, and the understanding and interest of his group. Thus, Martinism is a venue, rather than a rigid curriculum, and this is as it should be, for the path of re-integration is personal. Thus, some will work within one Order, some within another, and some will work alone as free Martinists. This is as it has always been.

Art. 6 of the landmarks of



Arthur Edward Waite Saint-Martin The French Mystic

A.E. Waite A new Encyclopaedia of Freemasonry, 1920's

R.A. L'Encyclopedie de la Franc-Maconnerie, ed. 2000

Edouard Blitz Ritual and Monitor of the Martinist Order, 1896 *

J.Godwin, C.Chanel, The Hermetic Brotherhood of Luxor, Initiatic and Historical and J.P.Deveney Documents of an Order of Practical Occultism, 1997

J.Godwin The Beginnings of Theosophy in France, 1989

Gerald Galtier Maçonnerie Egyptienne, Rose-Croix et Neo-Chevalerie 1989

R.F.Gould History of Freemasonry, 1882/1887

John Yarker Arcane Schools , 1910

P.R. Koenig Ein Leben fuer die Rose (on Krumm-Heller)

Victor-Emile Michelet Les Compagnons de la Hiérophanie: souvenirs du movement hermétiste à la fin du XIX siècle

G.Phaneg Le Docteur Papus ( Paris, 1909 )

M.S.André,Chr.Beaufils Papus - la Belle Epoque d'Occultisme, 1995

Dr.Philippe Encausse Papus

Dr.Philippe Encausse Le Maitre Philippe, de Lyon: Thaumaturge et "Homme de Dieu"

L.C. de Saint-Martin des Nombres

Chr.McIntosh Eliphas Levi and the French Occult Revival

Robert Amadou Documents Martinistes, 1979

Robert Ambelain Le Martinisme - Histoire et doctrine


Documents, Articles

Dr.Carlos Raitzin René Guenon y las Ordenes Esotericas

Teio Meedendorp Sar Mérodack-Joséphin Péladan en het ideaal van de kunst

O*M* des Pays-Bas Rituelen en hun Symboliek ( brochure )


Fr.M Roggemans De Geschiedenis van de Occulte en Mystieke Broederschappen

"1934-1951 F.U.D.O.S.I."

O*M* des Pays-Bas Docteur Gérard Encausse

Apostolic Gnosis/E.G.A. the Balzac of the Occult and the Russian Sphynx

Golden Aeon The French Rosicrucian Movement

Canonbury Masonic Research Centre a Checklist of some 'Neo-Rosicrucian' Manifestations

Canonbury Masonic Research Centre A basic Historico-Chronological Model of the Western Hermetic Tradition, 1999 Trevor Stewart

Martinist Research-Site "Les Maîtres Passés"

History LCN, "Le Coeleuvre Noire"



Gérard Anaclet Encausse ( 1865 - 1916 ) aka Papus


a Special Thanks to all members of the Martinist-E-Group for their contributions and to Bro. Glenn Holcomb from whom I've received a copy of Blitz' "Ritual and Monitor of The Martinist Order", Thanx a lot, Bro. Glenn!

Milko c) 2001

VERSION 1.2 , November 2003

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